Abstract: Calculating an adjustment to national income for environmental losses requires shadow prices for environmental functions. In most cases these cannot be obtained because of the impossibility of translating the intensity of individual preferences for the environment into market terms. In this article an alternative approximation is proposed that comes down to a calculation based on physical standards for sustainable use of the environment.
Abstract: As part of a collaborative project between the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and the Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus Research Institute (Leiden), data were gathered on flora in the Netherlands. In 1977 work began on the compilation of the Atlas of Dutch Flora, which uses distribution maps to indicate whether a particular species has been observed in grid squares of 5 × 5 km; data are provided for the period prior to 1950 as well as the subsequent period. September 1989 saw the publication of the third and last volume of the Atlas. Distribution data are now available for a total of…1458 species. By comparing the data for the two periods, it is possible to obtain an overview of the changes in Dutch flora distribution. The information thus obtained is used to compile distribution maps for ecotope groups. The enormous quantities of information, the length of time required to complete the Atlas and the consequent changes in scientific insights have inevitably meant that material has had to be reworked before further analyses can be carried out.
Abstract: Monitoring and environmental statistical sampling are the most important source for the generation of pollution statistics. The use of these sources poses a great number of methodological problems, including some fundamental obstacles to the preparation of reliable environment statistics. Direct environmental statistical sampling being comparatively expensive, alternative methods will be required in the production of environment statistics. Conceptual and methodological integration will be a key element in alternative production processes, which require statistical offices to become more enterprising in the search for adequate techniques. Examples are available that illustrate such successful techniques.
Abstract: The recent socio-economic changes in most east European countries call for a re-orientation of the work of their statistical offices. This re-orientation constitutes a considerable challenge not only for the offices in the countries concerned, but also for the international statistical community. The challenge can only be faced, if sufficient support is forthcoming for the various priority tasks. These tasks relate to both subject-matter areas and the different phases of the statistical production process.