Abstract: The decreasing fertility rates in Sweden during the 1970s can be explained as postponement of childbearing. An increasingly larger part of each generation has chosen to bear children at a late age, after education and some years of occupational work. As a consequence, the yearly age-specific rates will, in years to come, change systematically towards relatively high rates for women in the second half of the fertile period; changes which are important in population projections. To predict the future rates a model based on birth order data and assumptions about the final family size is used. The model and its…application in the 1989 projection of the Swedish population is discussed in the paper. Alternative projections and the assumptions behind the alternatives are specified.
Abstract: The gains in average life expectancy achieved during the course of the twentieth century in Europe present an increase of the overlife of women over time. Correlated the male life expectancy at birth with the corresponding excess female life expectancy by regions in Europe (north, west, south), an S-shaped “curve” derives as a pattern in each region, following four phases: first phase, increase of male life expectancy to about 58 years, but no change in female excess; second phase, increase for males up to 66 years, but only a small increase in female excess; third phase, increase for males…by only 3 years, but acceleration of the female excess; and fourth phase, increase for male life expectancy with a retardation of the excess female life expectancy. Out of these three patterns (north, west and south) a model emerges which can be used for predicting the sex differential in life expectancy at birth, when the male life expectancy at birth is given. For example, among the three regions the prediction could be made for the region of southern countries (which is with some lag as compared to the other two regions) on the level and sex differential of the life expectancy in the next decade.
Abstract: In France, women's participation in the labour force has gradually shifted over the past 30 years. From a situation in which women's right to pursue an occupation was far from being recognized, they came to be viewed as an auxiliary labour force. Women's participation in economic activity as a general practice is now taken for granted. Nowadays the place and role of women in society depend more on their place in the labour force than in the family. This fact clearly cuts across the evolution of the picture reflected in the statistical surveys and analyses. The problem is no…longer one of improving the methods of measuring women's activity, but rather of learning more about the various situations of employment, unemployment or inactivity, in order to identify new forms of inequality between men and women in the labour market and to follow their evolution. The issue now is whether it is possible for women to be less exposed to the risk of unemployment and, when they are at work, to avoid being penalized in comparison with men (precariousness, working conditions, wages, underemployment, segregation in employment and in careers, etc.).
Abstract: International comparisons of income distributions are often carried out based on data at an aggregated level. This article describes the comparison of the income distributions of Hungary and the Netherlands. In this comparison harmonised micro-data have been used to reach a high degree of comparability. The empirical results show that the inequality of household incomes was the same in both countries in the early eighties. After adjustments for differences in size and composition of households the income distribution was less equal in the Netherlands than in Hungary. The equivalence scales used were based on national budget surveys.
Abstract: Within the context of the work of the UK Central Statistical Office (CSO), this paper explores the subject of measuring and improving the quality of registers of businesses that are maintained for statistical inquiries (business survey frames). The increasing reliance on administrative sources (Value Added Tax records in the case of the CSO) and the need to minimise costs puts pressure on the quality of such registers. The checking procedures and the results of investigations of register quality are presented.
Abstract: Since 1974, the UK Central Statistical Office has used a database as the platform to compile, manage and disseminate the main macro-economic statistical indicators; National Accounts, Index of Production, Balance of Payments etc. For most of this period the system has used Unisys' DMS 1100, a Codasyl database management system running on a Unisys 1100 central mainframe, driven by a suite of purpose-built Fortran programs. In the early 1980's it was decided to redesign the system using a distributed processing configuration based on IBM-compatible microcomputers attached through an Ethernet local area network to a central database running on a…powerful Unix computer. The new system uses a relational database package, Ingres, running at the centre. The local micro processing is based almost entirely on commercial spreadsheet packages. The new system is more cost effective and flexible than the old and better meets users needs.