Abstract: The international standards on the measurement of the economicaly active population, employment, unemployment and underemployment, adopted by the 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) in 1982, present some important changes with respect to earlier standards. This paper concentrates on the measurement of women's economic activities. Working women are in general more difficult to identify than men due to the type of work they are engaged in and their role as homeworkers. The results obtained from two ILO methodological surveys carried out in Kerala, India and Costa Rica in 1983, show that these standards improve the measurement of women in…economic activity, particularily when an activity list is incorporated into the questionnaire to detect persons engaged in production for own consumption, and the seeking work criterion for measuring unemployment is relaxed.
Abstract: Methods of international demand analysis are discussed together with an analysis of consumer demand for twenty European countries, making use of the results of the European Comparison Project 1985. The focal point is a demand function for eight main categories of consumption, with general income level and relative prices as explanatory variables. Estimations are confronted with actual amounts of consumption in the various country.
Abstract: Artificial intelligence and statistical expert systems have lately been on the agenda of almost every conference of statisticians. Statistics, where there are no artificial barriers between symbolic and algorithmic knowledge processing methods, might be the field to start developing a general theory of knowledge representation and of what could be termed meaning-cognition, two of the still missing pieces in the puzzle of artificial intelligence. The knowledge based applications are slowly finding their way to statistical product lines and knowledge processing architectures are penetrating the walls of traditional data processing environments.
Abstract: This paper presents some of the methodological and conceptual issues in developing household and family projections. Alternative methods are briefly examined in light of some basic criteria and of Statistics Canada's experience in the application of the headship rate approach. This approach satisfies most of the basic criteria of a robust and practical method, and has the advantage of being able to use the latest population projections by age and sex as its base. It thus takes into consideration the changes in population structure which have a major effect on the number and composition of households and families. If…the projections are prepared for a period of about 20 years, fertility assumptions will have no effect on the projected number of heads. The thrust of the projection work can therefore focus on the extrapolation of the series of headship rates. Other issues covered include conceptual changes in data series; selection of the explanatory variables and categories; and development of alternative assumptions.
Abstract: It is proposed to present data on unpaid household work in money terms in a Satellite System to the System of National Accounts. The concepts and principles of this System on Household Production are developed, and it is shown how estimates can be derived on the basis of a time budget survey. For the Federal Republic of Germany, estimates on the value of household production will presumably be presented in 1993.
Abstract: Methodological aspects of analysing the interrelations between air pollution and the main pollution sources by means of statistical modelling are studied. Multifactor regression analysis has been used to describe the air pollution caused mainly by stationary sources. Regression equations for six most widespread pollutants are used to compile air pollution forecasts as a part of long-term planning of environmental protection. The models have been applied on 5 main Estonian towns for the period 1970 to 1995.
Abstract: International comparisons of social expenditures are a relatively new branch among the framework of comparative intercountry analyses. So far the research work in this field has been done by the Statistical Offices of Austria, Poland and the USSR. One of the most interesting outcomes is the construction of a social account. Such account assembles the expenditures necessary to implement social programmes and the respective revenues to finance them. It emerged as conceptually useful to divide social expenditures into “in cash” and “in kind” whereas for the revenues the “ear-marking”-criterion has been developed. As regards the numerical results comparable data are…available for the reference year 1985 so far. As a next step of this project it is intended to up-date the calculations and further elaborate the concepts, which could facilitate the joining of other countries in this exercise.