Abstract: Micro-computers have proved to be very valuable additions to a traditional mainframe set-up for a statistical agency. Their breakthrough in the last few years came in word processing and publishing where computer support was still weak, and not in ordinary statistics production, where mainframe support is advanced with heavy investment in software and training. Concern for data security has added rather severe constraints on the transfer of systems to micros from the mainframe. Data collection by interviewers, data entry and edit, statistical analysis, graphics, data distribution and also systems development are fast growing areas of applications. To achieve efficiency, micros…must be integrated in local area networks and with the mainframe. Central recommendations on both hardware and software are needed as are stringent rules for data security. Microcomputers are cost effective, as is illustrated in a discussion of the economics of computer support.
Abstract: Statistical data on time utilization are part of the overall system of indicators of social statistics, being of importance for a complex analysis of the development of the standard of living of the population. Since the seventies the State Central Administration of Statistics of the GDR conducted time budget investigations in intervals of about 5 years. The households of workers and salaried employees are sampled. In the sampled households all females aged from 16 to 60 and all males aged from 16 to 65 take part in the survey. The interviewing period is one week each in April and…September. The activities are recorded on the basis of rotation for one day between 0 and 24 hours in an open time record. Moreover, a number of activities carried out simultaneously are recorded including their duration. The interviewer records significant demographic features and characteristics of the material conditions under which the activities have been carried out. The time spent on individual activities is calculated as the average time spent by degree of participation.
Abstract: New processing techniques are having an impact on the management and organization of statistical data processing and on the relationship between computer specialists and statisticians. The CBS uses microcomputers in cooperation with mainframes and minicomputers which can increase both the efficiency of the process and the quality of the produced information. The introduction of microcomputers, however, has an impact on the organization of activities of both the automation department and the subject–matter departments. This calls for a determined policy with respect to the decentralization of regular data processing, and for the standardization of automation tools.
Abstract: Despite a considerable improvement in both the quantity and the quality of statistical information on key aspects of national education systems available in international publications, using the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), considerable problems of interpretation are still limiting the use of these data. Producers and users of the data are more fully aware of the problems and realize that some problems can be solved only by a more fundamental analysis of the special difficulties which the varied institutional structures in Education present to international statisticians. This paper discusses some of these difficulties, particularly in the area of higher…education. It draws attention to the need to provide a greater degree of contextual information about individual countries as a background to an adequate interpretation of the data it supplies, even when these data are expressed using accepted international conventions. It also considers the possibility that some revision of ISCED may be necessary to clarify some ambiguities and to provide a base for future development. It also discusses a number of practical problems which require further attention by national statisticians to improve international comparability of data in this area.
Abstract: Land information and production statistics are combined to make assessments of agricultural pollution. Actual or simulated data may be used in a model (the SIMJAR-model) to estimate runoff of nitrogen and phosphorus and soil erosion at the level of land bit (combination of a specific soil type and crop within a holding). The estimations can be aggregated to holdings, districts, regions, or to the whole country. SIMJAR is constructed to calculate scenarios for runoff reductions by simulating various measures, and combinations of measures, on fertilization and regional production patterns. The effects on employment, allocation of food production, and economic result…at holding level can be studied simultaneously.
Abstract: The article discusses some examples of quality presentations in environment statistics produced by Statistics Sweden (SCB). The regular guidelines for quality presentations are mainly applicable to statistical surveys of random samples from finite populations of well defined objects. The examples are chosen to illustrate different situations, e.g. computations integrating several data sources, statistics based on data from selected monitoring stations, and secondary publications.
Abstract: The second phase of the ECE/UNDP Statistical Computing Project is scheduled for 1988–1990. It succeeds the first phase, in which nineteen countries of the ECE region participated in joint development of software for use in national statistical services. The focus of the work during the first phase was on mainframe application. Phase II is intended to deal with the use of micro computers in statistical services. Particular attention is being paid to the outreach programme, whereby the results of SCP will be made available to developing countries.