Abstract: During the last five years, the level of Italian public financial resources spent in the environmental sector has been about 1% of GNP. Data on environmental expenditures are not easily available because of the lack of a homogeneous budget classification for this sector. Estimation of the data shows that the biggest share of environmental expenditure in Italy is (till now) in investments for soil protection and waste-water treatment plants.
Abstract: Accounts by socio-occupational category are a very good example of the relationship between macro-economic data based on the national accounting system and micro-economic data obtained from household surveys. Every five years since 1956 French statisticians have tried to break down the household income account into eight subgroups according to the socio-occupational category to which the head of household belongs. They use more than 150 distribution keys coming from various household surveys (health, housing, consumption) and from a specific “taxable income survey” conducted especially with the income tax authorities for this purpose and thought to provide better information than an ordinary…household survey. The expectations of users and technological advances in data analysis and collection have stimulated new developments: (i) an updating method has been implemented to produce more recent accounts; (ii) income accounts are also calculated according to family size and income level; (iii) alternative definitions of disposable income can be evaluated, such as discretionary income and pre-allocated income, broadening the concept of disposable income by including the counterparts of the individualized final consumption expenditure of Government bodies.
Abstract: The widespread acceptance of ISCED has made a significant improvement in the collection and analysis of resource data using standard international terminology, but it has not solved the problem. This paper suggests that an adequate solution to the problem does not require any modification of the components of ISCED; it requires a new approach to using ISCED and a revision of some of its guidelines. While pupils can be classified to a unique level of ISCED, resources in general cannot be so classified, nor can they be classified to any pre-determined pattern; they can be classified only to a range,…i.e., a set formed from contiguous levels of ISCED (or other classification). The number of items on a classification by range is manageable. When this approach is taken possibilities for analysis and presentation of the data are open; in particular an allocation procedure can be used to attribute certain aspects of resource data (e.g. time, money) to unique ISCED levels, depending on the availability of suitable supplementary data. A key difference from current practices is that the allocation phase is separable from the reporting phase. It is regarded as a process requiring the professional judgement of the analyst.
Abstract: The state of the art of computerisation in the Hungarian Central Statistical Office shows a mixed picture, partly reflecting a normal variation in hardware and software tools, but partly being the result of lack of suitable resources. After introducing the present state of the technical environment of the Hungarian statistical system, the paper gives an overview about the main phases of data processing and software tools. The phases are defined as usual in the traditional classification. However, data entry, data validation and data editing are combined in the term of “data preparation”. This “linguistic” modification covers a great technological…achievement of the past few years. The other important result was achieved in on-line query possibilities with SOLAR, a system developed in-house. The lack of resources makes necessary development, of which the strategic concerns are with integration of micros, centralization and decentralization, networking, and data management. However, the most essential point relates to be the changing role of end users, who will take over the responsibility for their data processing.
Abstract: Based on twenty years of experience in the use of statistical data banks and confronted with the arrival of new technologies, the State Central Statistical Office of the GDR has to fix its strategy for the nineties. The most important step will be the implementation of computer-aided workplaces. They will enable statisticians to use both the powerful centralized capacities of extended data funds, sophisticated hardware, software and orgware and the decentralized facilities offered mainly by the growing performance of a variety of microcomputers. The way into the near future is characterized by a steady process of transforming the traditional mainframe-oriented…behaviour of both statisticians and computer specialists into more and more workplace-oriented procedures for the combined use of centralized and decentralized information technology. As a main result it is expected that the subject-matter specialist will be more and better assisted by the highly automated statistical information system as a whole but will be freed from technical duties.
Abstract: Planning and implementing a large computer systems mainframe and personnel computer network is described. The network introduces full workstation services through interconnecting Local Area Networks. Availability of a full suite of standardized software is stressed. Also, considerable importance is placed on the development of the architecture to include “window oriented” workstations and Data Base Engines.