Abstract: The hedonic approach to price measurement is described and applied to a newly-developed data base relating to house sales In the United Kingdom. This data base is exceptionally large and provides information on a wide range of house characteristics not available hitherto. A monthly index of prices covering all (both new and non-new) houses is derived for the period from January 1983. Indices for sub-groups of houses and buyers are presented. The housing market background in the United Kingdom is outlined and the problems of measurement and the results are appraised.
Abstract: The data collected during the 1982 French census will be processed as follows: one quarter of the forms is intended for heavy operation, while the remaining three fourths will be for light operation. The first batch is processed within the Institute whereas the second is handed over to subcontractors. In both instances, the Institute deemed it necessary to implement a sample inspection of the combined codification-capture activity. Different sets of methods are selected for light and heavy operations, respectively. They can each be considered from five stand-points: – The purpose of inspection; – constraints to be allowed…for; – definition of a number of concepts; – characteristics regarding sampling, specific processing of sample units, the selected decision rule and theoretical justifications of the solutions agreed upon.
Abstract: A draft standard Nordic classification of land has been developed by the Nordic Committee for Environmental Statistics. The draft is based on ‘Draft standard international classification of land use’ developed by the ECE. The classification systems are identical at the one-digit level, while at the two- and three-digit levels there are some differences. The definitions were at some points at such variance with accepted Nordic practices that changes were inevitable. Several trial runs have been conducted in the Nordic countries applying the draft classification. In Sweden the system has been used for structuring a short publication entitled ‘Land use…in Sweden’. Statistics Sweden produces statistics of land use in urban settlements from aerial photographs and maps. In this context, too, the Nordic standard classification of land constitutes the point of departure. However, interpretation errors are inevitable. For example, difficulties exist in differentiating between residential land, commercial land and land under mixed use.
Abstract: International comparison of national income aggregates are of importance and much interest at the world level. Comparability is, however, influenced by the extent to which the national accounting practices conform to international standards. But a more fundamental problem for meaningful comparison evolves from the basis on which national value aggregates are brought to comparable units. Traditionally this has been done through the use of market currency exchange rates to convert the national product and its aggregates into some common currency. These, however, do not give meaningful comparisons. The problems are even greater when market exchange rates fluctuate freely and frequently.…In order to overcome these problems the International Comparison project has addressed itself to the development and implementation of techniques for achieving international comparability of the real quantity of GDP and its aggregates. The basis for this conversion has been through the use of purchasing power parities. This paper outlines the methodology used for the African Comparisons of Phase IV for the reference year 1980, which was coordinated by the Statistical Office of the European Communities.
Abstract: In international comparisons of GDP, the purchasing power parities are derived from elementary price information of ‘representative items’. For various reasons, the articles (goods, services) available are not always fully equivalent. Adjustment of the prices is a means that is sometimes referred to as a way out, although often practiced in a pragmatic ad hoc manner. In the European Comparison Programme (ECP) 1980, this technique has been used to cope with comparability problems between the Group II countries. Reconsidering ECP practice, certain common features of adjustment emerge which may provide a basis of further development. Adjustment is one choice…among several options of which others may be preferable, but sometimes it is the only applicable solution. A basic distinction can be drawn between adjustment for differences of quantitative characteristics and of qualitative characteristics. The former seems to lend itself to more ‘exact’ procedures while the latter is to a greater extent subject to arbitrariness. Yet subjective elements are inherent in both types. Attempts of standardization might refer to conventions on methods; to likely magnitudes; to coverage; and to areas for application. Conclusions drawn with a view to future comparison rounds recommend methodological and organizational preconditions to be provided rather than ‘cooking recipes’.
Abstract: Box–Jenkins methods can be employed for purposes of forecasting complex economic series. Alternatively, exponential approximation with two parameters can also be used. It can be shown that this approximation can be transformed into stationary IMA processes of the order (0, 2, 2). Comparison of forecasting results reveals that both methods yield similar data. However, exponential approximation with two parameters permits to choose the starting point in the area of minimum fluctuations.