Abstract: There are strong forces within statistical agencies for integration of data and therefore for common standards and methods across programs, while at the same time, there is a desire to be creative and imaginative in taking advantage of IT opportunities in serving clients better. This paper describes how Statistics Canada has reconciled these forces to maintain an acceptable and manageable balance between creativity and conformity.
Abstract: Since March 1996, the Federal Statistical Office has been present in the Internet as a data provider with its own server. During a testing phase of over one year, the Office has acquired knowledge of how to use this medium, so that it is possible now to exchange experience with other institutions. What can be said already now is that the expectations regarding the acceptance of the German statistical data supply in the Internet have even been exceeded. The Internet offers a suitable tool for marketing, sale and support.
Abstract: Based on the definition of tourism given by the World Tourism Organization, the definition of industry and the concept of productive activities in the System of National Accounts, we show in this paper that tourism has a demand side and a supply side, and that the latter is defined by the former. Also, the supply side of tourism involves many industries in the economy and cannot be defined as a single industry. Therefore, we argue that aggregate measures of tourism should be built from the demand side. We also argue that the measure of the size of tourism and the…measure of the contribution of tourism to GDP should be separated. While initial tourism demand is the best measure of the size of tourism, tourism driven GDP is the best measure of the contribution of tourism. The paper presents a method for deriving the two measures. The size measure is free of double counting and comparable to GDP, while the contribution measure provides a conceptually correct and statistically consistent basis for analyzing the supply side of tourism.
Abstract: Ecological Area Sampling (EAS) is a new statistical approach to provide data on the state and development of ecosystem and landscape structures. EAS is a systematically designed and standardized tool of data sampling and analysis to get representative results of physical structures for the whole of Germany. Data are collected periodically in monitoring sites selected at random. The concepts were tested to a limited extent in a pilot study in summer 1995 and summer 1996. In the article the general concepts of EAS will be briefly outlined. The survey contents and the indicators that can be derived will be described,…and some first results of the pilot study will be given.
Abstract: Censuses and household surveys serve to update the demographic and socio-economic data bases. As a source of reliable data, collected in the field, they may serve also to enrich the knowledge in environmental subjects. The extent to which we may be able to exploit censuses and surveys for the “environment exploration” depends heavily on the content of the specific data collection. This paper will deal with the possible use of the Israeli population and household census, and with the agriculture survey. Two main assets which are built into our census are: 1. The urban area is fully…digitized, to the level of the building. This Geographical Information System (GIS) opens up a whole range of applications of linking environmental occurrences and facts with the underlying information that we have from censuses and surveys, using both coordinates and addresses, by various geographic areas. 2. Every individual is given an identification number at birth (or entrance to the country), by the ministry of interior, and this ID appears in every form the individual fills out or license that he may receive. This enables us to link records from environmental occurrences with the census data, and opens a range of applications where individuals involved in environmental occurrences (as accidents, driver licenses, hunting permissions, etc.), may be matched with their socio-economic status from the census. The socio-economic status of an area does not change rapidly, and therefore may be used in regard with environmental statistics for a relatively long period, between censuses. It is possible to learn from the census about the usage of land in urban areas, the density of building coverage in an area, the type of building: residential, commercial, industrial, public, the type of flat: vacant, occupied and if occupied – are they residential or for business and commerce, the density of the population by various geographic areas. An important usage of census data is to construct indicators, per person or per household, for an environmental occurrence, for a certain geographical area. It is possible to construct the borders of any area almost freely, as we have the GIS to the level of buildings. The GIS for urban areas has the capability of matching environmental observations with the characteristics of the underlying population, and their socio-economical factors. These factors emerge from different fields of interest, as income, number of cars per household or per area, durable goods in the household, water heating system, etc. These factors do not change very fast, and may be used without having to worry too much about updating the data, if we accumulate the data over large enough areas. For example, in some topics of environmental research it may be of interest to define the “age” of the urban neighborhood, using the questions (in the sample of 20% taken with the census) related to the year of construction of the residential buildings, or to learn about the year the family moved to the building, which will throw some light on the question of population migration of the family (or person) to the current address, also indicating from where the family (person) moved. We may get a picture of aging areas versus new ones, or preferable areas to abandoned ones (migration to … and from …). The question on durable goods may be used in connection to environmental subjects by learning about the rate of cars per family, availability of solar heating and air conditioners in the households, especially looking into the proportion of solar heaters which may spread some light on alternative energy sources and usage. The Agricultural Survey may be used to determine agricultural areas (size of the rural as opposed to the urban area), and destination of the land (agriculture, farming, buildings, silos, parks, etc.). The agriculture survey serves as a source of extracting environmental data. Some questions in the survey make it possible to define the variety of growth and live stock in the farms, communal farms as opposed to small private farming, land usage, use of pesticides, the extent of using treated water (secondary use) in the farms, etc.