Abstract: Official statistics on employment and salaries for 1990, covering the whole labour market, have been used for a unique study of women and men at higher managerial positions. For different industries and occupational groups in the private sector, and for various spheres of activities in the public sector, numbers of women and men are presented. Information is also given by age and education. Although there is an equal distribution of women and men among all employees, the sex distribution among managers is very skewed. For full-time managers a more detailed analysis of salaries is made, giving information on average…salaries and percentile distributions. The salaries for both women and men differ greatly in various parts of the labour market. However, salary differences between women and men are, with a few exceptions, always to the men's advantage. This is true even when taking into consideration age as well as level and field of education. After standard weighting the remaining differentials in average salary lie between 5 and 25 percent. For the private sector managers' salaries have been compared with those of salaried employees of lower qualificational levels. Many of these employees attain the lowest salary level of women managers, but few earn the same as men managers.
Abstract: In Norway and the other Nordic countries, women are now strongly represented in prominent positions of leadership in politics and parliamentary circles. But what about the other public arenas where power is wielded? According to this article, the percentage of women in top-level positions varies considerably in different areas of society. The range spans from politically-elected top positions in the public sector, with woman prime minister and close to fifty percent of cabinet ministers who are women, to senior executive positions in the private sector, with no woman managing director in the 200 largest private enterprises.
Abstract: We combine data from the time budget survey with consumption data from national accounts to obtain a more comprehensive picture of household welfare as depending not only on income and consumption, but also on time use patterns in unpaid household work and leisure. The framework is based on household production theory and linked to a national account framework in the form of a household production input-output table. Preliminary results are given as an input-output table for Norway in 1991.
Abstract: The present investigation examined the participation of adults in a broad array of productive activities. Data are from two waves of a national household survey of adults 25 years and older in the U.S. conducted in 1986 and again in 1989. The purpose of this study was to describe stability and change in involvement in productive activity. Results demonstrate a great deal of stability in participation across the two waves. Some change in participation was detected, however, and analyses revealed that age and gender were associated with change in several activities.
Abstract: The activities of the Bureau of Statistics of the International Labour Office (ILO) fall within three related areas: (i) collection and dissemination of labour statistics; (ii) development of guidelines for the effective collection of valid, reliable and comparable labour statistics; (iii) provision of technical assistance to national authorities responsible for the production and effective use of labour statistics and of training in this field. This article presents these activities and their background.