Abstract: An overview of the social indicator (SI) and cultural indicator (CI) movements since the mid-1970s is provided, as well as an evaluation of concepts, methods and results emanating from these movements. Organizational and conceptual models/frameworks used for the selection and compilation of social and cultural indicators are also dealt with. The ability of current SIs and CIs (1) to meet requirements for describing policy goal fulfilment are discussed, and (2) conceptual and measurement issues, theory building and system/policy modelling in cross-national studies and research on societal matters are reflected upon. Regarding point (1): the numerous statistical yearbooks seem to…have no apparent bearing on cultural goal fulfilment. Regarding point (2): very little “groundwork” on theory building, etc., has been done to date for developing cultural indicators. Indicators on culture and communication are proposed, based on the UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics (FCS). One starting point is the UNESCO World Decade for Cultural Development policy objective of “broadening participation in cultural activities”. Some 70 indicators are suggested, allocated within an input-throughput-output matrix. Presumptive data sources for the derivation of the system of indicators are specified (in short-term/long-term perspective). For the harmonization of concepts, definitions and calculation of indicators, “task forces” should be established for setting up networks among European countries (organizations/agencies).
Abstract: In its first part, this contribution outlines the methodological bases of the statistical coverage and presentation of health expenditure in the Federal Republic of Germany. For this purpose, first a model is developed which includes all institutions and transactions of the health sector. It serves as a basis for analysing data sources and the resulting coverage of benefits and services relevant to health. The health expenditure is shown with a breakdown by financing bodies (for example, compulsory health insurance funds, private health insurance funds, employers), types of benefits and services (for example, prevention and care, treatment, follow-up measures and benefits)…and types of expenditure (for example, payments in kind, income payments, investments). In many cases, gaps in the data material had to be closed by means of estimates or extrapolations. In the second part, the results of the reference year 1989 are presented. A total of DM 276.8 billion (Billion is used here in the American sense, i.e., 109 .) was spent on health-related purposes in 1989, with treatment (outpatient and inpatient treatment, pharmaceuticals, applications and appliances) accounting for DM 164.0 billion while DM 77.0 billion had to be spent on follow-up measures and benefits (continued pay, pensions in the case of occupational invalidity and incapacity for work, rehabilitation measures), and DM 17.9 billion for prevention and care. The remainder was spent on the education/training of medical staff and covered the administrative expenses of the health insurance funds. The biggest part of overall expenditure amounting to DM 127.6 billion (46%) was borne by the compulsory health insurance funds. Health expenditure accounted for 9.2% of the gross national product, and expenditure calculated per capita was DM 4,416.