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Nutrition and Aging is an international forum for research on nutrition as a means of promoting healthy aging. It is particularly concerned with the impact of nutritional interventions on the metabolic and molecular mechanisms which modulate aging and age-associated diseases, including both biological responses on the part of the organism itself and its micro biome. Results emanating from both model organisms and clinical trials will be considered.
With regards to the latter, the journal will be rigorous in only accepting for publication well controlled, randomised human intervention trials that conform broadly with the current EFSA and US FDA guidelines for nutritional clinical studies. The journal will publish research articles, short communications, critical reviews and conference summaries, whilst open peer commentaries will be welcomed.
Abstract: This review aims to highlight some aspects regarding anthocyanins bioavailability. Although there is a considerable variability in the values for the biokinetic parameters, anthocyanins appear to be rapidly absorbed and eliminated, reaching low maximal concentrations in plasma and urine. Nevertheless, some works have reported a high content of intact anthocyanins in plasma, possibly resulting from gastric absorption. So far, no anthocyanin metabolites have been detected in the stomach and the possible mechanism of anthocyanin gastric absorption is still unknown. Some progress in this field is expected to be obtained through studies involving a new human cell culture model of the…gastric surface suitable for bioavailability screening of nutraceuticals like anthocyanins and anthocyanin-derived pigments. The positive health effects associated with anthocyanin consumption could derive from the contribution afforded by the stomach to intact anthocyanin absorption. Nonetheless, these latter may be further metabolized to other bioactive forms.
Abstract: Insulin resistance (IR) could play a role in neurodegenerative diseases (ND). The high-fructose (HF) diet is an IR model in rats. The vitamin A-deprived (VAD) rat is known to develop large similarities with ND within only 14 weeks post-weaning. Since VAD symptoms are partly reversible and independent of any IR mechanism, this ND model was used to investigate (i) a potential additional effects of IR in a ND context, and (ii) a possible preventive strategy when resveratrol (RSV) is added to the diet. Male Wistar rats were fed from weaning to 15–19 weeks: control, HF (60%), VAD and a combination…HF+VAD; some control, VAD and VAD + HF rats were force-fed with trans-RSV (54 μg/100 g weight). In addition to assessing blood parameters (IR or inflammation), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allowed both: (i) a longitudinal follow-up of brain anatomical (MRI) and early micro-structural changes (diffusion tensor imaging) and (ii) a metabolomic study of brain and liver (1 H HRMAS spectroscopy) at key points in the diets. An early decrease (<6 weeks) in fractional anisotropy in hippocampus was evidenced in VAD and preceded other impairments. HF diet induced biological IR from week 9 but brain metabolomic changes were already detected from week 5. In contrast, no brain morphologic change was observed. VAD + HF diet impaired rat health, enhanced the retinolemia VAD-induced decrease and increased ventricular volume vs both HF and VAD. Presence of RSV decreased IR, maintained retinol and attenuated the ventricular volume increase, probably via AMPKinase activation. Interestingly, these results allowed us to determine a sequence in brain impairments; first, micro structural changes, followed by metabolic disturbances and later on morphological modifications.
Abstract: Skeletal muscles are the largest tissue in our body and play an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Cultured L6 myotubes and C2 C12 myotubes are useful to construct simple glucose uptake assay systems, to screen various phytochemicals that promote glucose uptake, and to clarify their modes of actions. In skeletal muscles, insulin promotes glucose uptake by activating phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt, leading to increased translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Another GLUT4 translocation promoter is 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In mammalian cells, AMPK activated by an increase in AMP/ATP ratio acts…as an energy sensor. AMPK is activated by exercise/contraction in muscle cells and compound such as metformin, this resulting in stimulation of GLUT4 translocation to plasma membrane and hence glucose uptake in skeletal muscles. Thus, studies on novel compounds that activate skeletal muscle glucose uptake and AMPK would be useful for the development of new treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we review the current knowledge of phytochemicals in foods and beverages that promote GLUT4 translocation via AMPK signaling in muscle cells, and their effects on glucose metabolism in mainly T2D model mice. Phytochemicals that have potential to stimulate glucose uptake in muscle cells are suggested to be anti-diabetic.
Abstract: Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer worldwide and the most common diet-related cancer, influenced by diets rich in red meat, low in plant foods and high in saturated fats. Observational studies have shown that fruit and vegetable intake may reduce colorectal cancer risks, although the precise bioactive components remain unclear. This review will outline the evidence for the role of polyphenols, glucosinolates and fibres against cancer progression in the gastrointestinal tract. Those bioactive compounds are considered protective agents against colon cancer, with evidence taken from epidemiological, human clinical, animal and in vitro studies. Various mechanisms of action have…been postulated, such as the potential of polyphenols and glucosinolates to inhibit cancer cell growth and the actions of insoluble fibres as prebiotics and the evidence for these actions are detailed within. In addition, recent evidence suggests that polyphenols also have the potential to shift the gut ecology in a beneficial manner. Such actions of both fibre and polyphenols in the gastrointestinal tract and through interaction with gut epithelial cells may act in an additive manner to help explain why certain fruits and vegetables, but not all, act to differing extents to inhibit cancer incidence and progression. Indeed, a focus on the individual actions of such fruit and vegetable components, in particular polyphenols, glucosinolates and fibres is necessary to help explain which components are active in reducing gastrointestinal cancer risk.
Keywords: Polyphenol, glucosinolate, fibre, fruit and vegetables, cancer, gut microbiota
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Older hospital patients are considered to be at risk of malnutrition due to insufficient dietary intake. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether taste enhancement, using ingredients naturally high in umami compounds, increases preference and consumption of a meal by older hospital patients. METHODS: 31 patients (65–92 years) on elderly care wards in a UK NHS Trust hospital took part in a single-blinded preference and consumption study. They tasted two meats (control and enhanced, presented in balanced order) and stated their preference. At lunch, control and enhanced cottage pie and gravy were served concurrently; patients were asked to consume ad libitum and…intake was measured. RESULTS: Taste enhanced meat was significantly preferred (P = 0.001). Although mean consumption was higher for the enhanced compared to control meal (137 g versus 119 g), with higher levels of energy (103 kcal versus 82 kcal) and protein (4.6 g versus 3.4 g) consumed; differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Natural ingredients rich in umami taste compounds can successfully be used to increase preference of meat based meals by older hospital patients. Larger trials are needed to determine whether such increases in preference can significantly increase consumption.