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Nutrition and Aging is an international forum for research on nutrition as a means of promoting healthy aging. It is particularly concerned with the impact of nutritional interventions on the metabolic and molecular mechanisms which modulate aging and age-associated diseases, including both biological responses on the part of the organism itself and its micro biome. Results emanating from both model organisms and clinical trials will be considered.
With regards to the latter, the journal will be rigorous in only accepting for publication well controlled, randomised human intervention trials that conform broadly with the current EFSA and US FDA guidelines for nutritional clinical studies. The journal will publish research articles, short communications, critical reviews and conference summaries, whilst open peer commentaries will be welcomed.
Abstract: Epidemiological and dietary intervention studies in humans and animals indicate that flavonoid consumption may be capable of promoting brain health. However, the knowledge regarding the brain bioavailability of flavonoids, and thus their potential for direct neuronal and glial actions, remains insufficient and inconsistent. If their direct actions on neurons are to be fully elucidated, knowledge regarding their transport across blood-brain barrier (BBB) and how this is regulated is crucial. Presently, there is sparse, but valuable information regarding the interaction of flavonoids and their metabolites with the BBB and their transfer across it. This review aims to highlight the existing knowledge…with regards to these issues by two approaches: firstly by examining data emanating from in vitro studies, and secondly by appraisal of the existing in vivo data regarding flavonoid bioavailability to the brain.
Abstract: The present review focuses on the emerging evidence regarding the potential of polyphenols to act as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This enzyme plays a fundamental role in the body and its inhibition may play a role in the control of various pathologies, including Myasthenia gravis, Glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease. Polyphenols are present throughout the human diet and their potential effects in ameliorating the quality of life and to prevent human ageing are the subject of numerous and varied research. In this review we outline the potential influence of polyphenols on acetylcholinesterase with a particular view to describing their actions in the brain.…Following an introduction to the biochemical actions of the enzyme and its active site, we will present an overview of the reported actions of polyphenols, in particular flavonoids and tannins, to act as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. We will also highlight structure-activity relationships and how metabolism of polyphenols during absorption affects their function. Finally, we discuss the evidence for some foods to possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitor activity.
Abstract: Epidemiological and clinical studies a role for flavanones (predominately found in citrus fruits) in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that a nutritional dose of naringin exerts anti-atherogenic properties together with non HDL-cholesterol lowering effect in a murin model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia . The goal of the present study was to explore possible molecular mechanisms of naringin at the hepatic level. To this end, we analyzed the hepatic transcriptome using a microarray approach in response to naringin supplementation (0.02%) in mice fed a high-fat high-cholesterol diet. Naringin was observed to increase hepatic lipid content (triglyceride and cholesterol)…without significant liver dysfunction (ALAT and ASAT activities) or histopathological alterations. Naringin supplementation also significantly improved insulin sensitivity as evaluated by the HOMA index and nutrigenomics revealed that naringin modulated the expression of 1,766 genes. These genes encode proteins involved in different cellular processes, such as lipid metabolism, inflammation and insulin signaling. In conclusion, this study revealed that the hypolipemic and anti-atherogenic effects induced by a nutritional-level naringin supplementation in high-fat high-cholesterol diet could be related to changes in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, revealing new in vivo targets of this flavanone.
Abstract: Olive oil, an important component of the Mediterranean diet, is rich in polyphenols and is known to possess positive health effects relative to other dietary fats. In addition, the leaves of the olive plant (Olea europaea) contain similar phenolics (oleuropein, luteolin-7-glucoside, apigenin-7-glucoside, verbascoside and hydroxytyrosol) to those of olives and olive oil, although at higher concentrations. For example, the most abundant is the secoiridoid, oleuropein, representing 1–14% of olive leaf weight vs. 0.005–0.12% in olive oil. Although currently considered a waste product of the olive oil industry, recent research has suggested beneficial effects of phenolic-rich olive leaf extracts (OLE) in…modifying cardiovascular risk biomarkers such as blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as improving vascular function and lipid profiles. Despite this, data regarding the biological actions of OLE has mostly derived from animal, in vitro and ex vivo studies, with limited evidence deriving from human trials. Although the absorption and metabolism of olive oil phenolics has been investigated, less is known about the bioavailability of phenolics from OLE, limiting the interpretation of existing in vitro and ex vivo data. The current review will begin by describing the phenolic composition of olive leaves in comparison with that of the better studied olive oil. It will then review the effects of OLE on cardiovascular risk factors, covering both animal and human studies and will end by considering potential mechanisms of action.
Abstract: Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives are polyphenolic compounds found in wide variety of plants. Previously, we have demonstrated that di-CQA and tri-CQA may be neuroprotective through their ability to promote intracellular adenosine-5′ -triphosphate (ATP) generation and by up-regulation of glycolytic enzyme expression. In the present study we have investigated the effect of di-CQA and tri-CQA on energy metabolism in SH-SY5Y cells using a metabolomic approach. Results indicate that di-CQA treatment of SH-SY5Y cells significantly increases the production of an array of glycolysis metabolites and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites, including acetyl-CoA, succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid. Tri-CQA treatment was…also observed to increase the levels of all glycolysis and TCA cycle metabolites and evoked a stronger effect than that of di-CQA. In addition to their effects on glycolytic metabolites, di-CQA and tri-CQA exposure also induced a significant increase in the production of ATP, ADP, GTP, and GDP. Our results suggest that CQA-induction of intracellular ATP synthesis is mediated by the activation of central metabolic pathways including the activation of glycolysis and the TCA cycle.