Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of milk and dairy products to an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the potential pathogenetic mechanisms remain to date yet to be ascertained. Galactose (D-Gal) is a hexose sugar which, when given orally and by other routes of administration, is picked up by the brain after a few hours. For doses above 100 mg/kg, it appears that galactose can cause biochemical and neuropathological alterations in neurons and astrocytes, similar to those observed in PD. These quantities can be reached and surpassed with the simple daily consumption of two glasses of milk,…the main dietary source of D-Gal in humans. It is likely that, relative to other neurons, dopaminergic neurons are more vulnerable to D-Gal induced damage, because of their greater vulnerability to oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in both PD and D-Gal toxicity, and mutations of the genes commonly involved in PD and in mitochondrial homeostasis could enhance this mechanism. If this hypothesis were to be confirmed, dietary interventions, such as reducing the sources of galactose in the diet, and/or increasing the intake of protective molecules, could help reduce the occurrence of this disease in the aging population.
Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of Citrus maxima fruit peel supplementation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Long Evans rats by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (90 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose level, oral glucose tolerance, and liver enzyme markers were evaluated. Moreover, histopathological examinations were also conducted using in liver sections to examine inflammation and fibrosis in the liver. Alloxan administered animals showed significant body weight loss and poor glucose tolerance. Alloxan administration also increased the liver marker enzymes’ activities and increased oxidative stress parameters compared to control rats. Citrus maxima…fruit peel supplementation for 21 days significantly (p < 0.05) reverted the glucose intolerance and liver enzymes activities to near normal levels. Moreover, Citrus maxima fruit peel supplementation prevented oxidative stress in liver of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Our investigation also showed that alloxan administration in rats causes inflammatory cells’ infiltration and fibrosis in the liver which is ameliorated by Citrus maxima fruit peel supplementation. Our investigation suggests that Citrus maxima fruit peel supplementation can ameliorate alloxan-induced diabetes and its complications. The antioxidant properties of the fruit probably play a major role in the observed effects.
Keywords: Alloxan, inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disorder characterized by a cluster of symptoms, which increases risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence rate of the MetS and identify its predisposing risk factors in Lebanese university students. METHODS: Using two-stage sampling, 266 students were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study at a local University. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical data and blood pressure were collected. Students filled out the following questionnaires: demographics, lifestyle habits, beverage consumption, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. MetS…was diagnosed based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. RESULTS: The prevalence of MetS in the sample population was found to be 6.4% . Furthermore, 65% of the sample had low HDL-C levels (53.10±13.06 mg/dl) and approximately 52% had a high waist circumference (85.67±11.45 cm). Neither lifestyle habits, beverage consumption, physical activity level, sleep quality nor increased stress were associated with increased risk of developing MetS. Age was significantly associated with higher odds of developing the MetS (aOR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03– 1.29). CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome is a cause of concern among Lebanese students, which highlights the need for prevention programs to decrease future health risks.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: People who engage in regular sport activities in commercial gyms usually consume dietary supplements without proper advice from health care professionals. Little is known about use of specific type of dietary supplements and factors associated with their use among people who exercise in gyms. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research work were to assess the prevalence of dietary supplement intake among people exercising in gyms and its influencing factors, to evaluate the use of specific type of dietary supplements and its association with sex and age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried…out in 20 gyms. Data were collected form 367 exercisers. Chi-square was used to study relationship between intake of dietary supplement and factors related to its use. RESULTS: The intake of dietary supplements was reported by 49% of the participants. The most frequent used supplements were: vitamin D (42%), protein powder (33.1%), vitamin B12 (30.4%), omega-3 (26.5%), vitamin C (26.0%), calcium (21.5%), iron (21.0%), branched chain amino acids (17.1%), vitamin E (16.1%), and multi- vitamins and minerals (16.0%). Age and self-perception of overall diet (P = 0.026) were associated with the overall use of dietary supplements. Type of used supplements differed by sex and age groups. Males took protein powder (P < 0.001), branched chain amino acids (P < 0. 001), energy drinks (P = 0.001), and Brewer’s yeast (P = 0.02). Whereas, females consumed more antioxidants (P = 0.036), vitamin D (P < 0.001), calcium (P = 0.001), and iron (P = 0.002). Participants older than 40 years consumed more (P < 0.05) vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin D, B-complex, vitamin B12, folic acid and calcium, and less protein powder (P = 0.024) in comparison to youngers. CONCLUSION: More than 40% of people exercising in gyms reported using dietary supplements. The use of specific dietary supplements was associated with sex and age.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive compound derived from sugar metabolism, precursor of cytotoxic products named Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs). Increased MG levels and MG-related AGEs have been long associated with diabetes and its complications. The association between MG and hypercholesterolemia – induced by high-fat diets- has not been studied previously, neither the effect of olive oil addition to this diets. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the variations of MG and cholesterol levels under the effect of high-fat and olive oil-enriched diets. METHODS: Sixteen healthy male adult (New Zealand White, 6 months old)…rabbits were fed with commercial pellets (control, four rabbits), or with 14% of bovine grease added to the pellets (high-fat diet, twelve rabbits). After six months, bovine grease was reduced to 7% (half fat diet, eight rabbits). Then, 7% of olive oil was added to the pellets (protective diet, four rabbits). Glycaemia, cholesterolemia, HDL-cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, fructosamine and MG-H1 levels were assessed in all experimental conditions (n = 4). RESULTS: The high-fat diet promoted a hypercholesterolemia associated with increased MG-H1 levels (p < 0.05) in non-diabetic and non-obese rabbits. Replacement of the high-fat diet with olive oil decreased significantly the cholesterolemia and MG-H1 levels (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicates that the replacement of a high-fat diet with olive oil can recover normal blood cholesterol values and can decrease MG-H1 levels.