Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Serum phospholipid omega-3 fatty acid levels in patients suffering from both type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) are lower than in their healthy counterparts. Omega-3 supplementation can be effective in controlling glycemic indices in T2DM, and in improving lipid profiles in T2DM and NAFLD as well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with T2DM and NAFLD. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 60 patients with T2DM and NAFLD were enrolled. The participants were randomly divided…into two groups. The omega-3 group (OG) received capsules containing omega-3 fatty acids (2g/d), and the placebo group (PG) received placebo capsules (2g/d) during a12 week period. Dietary intake was assessed with 24-hour dietary recalls. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric measurements were collected at the baseline and after 12 weeks. Serum levels of glycemic indices (fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)) and lipid profile (levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c)) were measured. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients completed the study. Paired t-test revealed no significant differences in the baseline measurements between the two groups. At the end of the study compared with the PG, the OG had a significant reduction in serum TG levels. However, there was no significant effect of omega-3 supplementation on the other parameters: the mean FBG or HbA1c concentration, neither on TC, LDL-c and HDL-c levels. CONCLUSION: Two grams per day of omega-3 supplementation after 12 weeks led to a significant reduction in serum TG levels in patients with T2DM and NAFLD. However, no significant effects were observed on FBG, HbA1c, TC, LDL-c, and HDL-c levels.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Alterante-day fasting regimens have been suggested as a possible approach for calorie restriction and weight loss. The aim was to compare the effect of a 6-week weight loss regimen based on the Mediterranean diet versus the Mediterranean diet with 5-day semi-fast, in achieving weight loss in overweight or obese people. METHOD: Randomized, controlled, prospective, semi-clinical trial of 44 participantes, aged 30 to 65 years, with overweight type II (BMI >27) or obesity (BMI >30). Subjects were distributed by randomization in group 1 (Mediterranean diet + semi-fast) and group 2 (standard hypocaloric Mediterranean diet). Anthropometric measurements were taken…and eating habits of the participants were recorded. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found when comparing anthropometric measurements between groups. Similar changes were observed between the two groups. However, when analysing anthropometric measurements inter-group, statistically significant differences (p <0.05) were obtained within each group. CONCLUSION: The low calorie Mediterranean diet and the low calorie Mediterranean diet + semi-fast diet used in this study appear to be equally as effective in decreasing body weight, fat mass, visceral fat mass and waist circumference. However, semi-fast regimens may be superior to daily restriction regimens in facilitating weight loss. These findings add to the growing body of evidence showing that altenate-day fasting regimens may be implemented as another viable option for weight loss in overweight and obese populations.
Keywords: Fasting, Mediterranean diet, fat mass, body mass index, obesity.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Involving natural food ingredients in controlling blood glucose in diabetic patients has been widely studied. However, there is little information about the effect of the ingredients on improvement of clinical, laboratory, and gut function markers. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to examine the effect of Job’s tears-enriched yoghurt on weight, fasting blood glucose, GLP-1, and Calprotectin in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. METHODS: Sixty male and female subjects with T2DM participating in this study were divided in two groups; received yoghurt (control group/C) and Job’s tears-enriched yoghurt (treatment group/T). Subjects use metformin only were…allowed. Job’s tears seed was extracted using a standard process. Weight was measured. Laboratory examination for fasting blood glucose, GLP-1, and calprotectin were performed using standard methods. Appropiate statistical analysis tests were applied to examine variables change within and between groups. Significancy was set at p <0.05.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Childhood weight disorder is a major public health problem worldwide. Although high income countries are facing to obesity, middle and low-income countries are struggling with a double burden of nutritional disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between early life factors with weight disorders and central obesity among children and adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional multi-centric study was conducted on 14400 students, aged 7-18 years in 2015 as a national surveillance program. Students were selected by random cluster sampling from 30 provinces of Iran. Early life factors were obtained via validated questionnaire from parents. Physical examination and…anthropometric indices were documented. Weight disorders were includes underweight, excess weight based on World Health Organization growth charts and abdominal obesity. RESULTS: Students with low birth weight had higher odds for underweight than students with normal weight (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.65). The odds of excess weight in students with high birth weight were 36% higher than students with normal birth weight (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79,). Also in multivariate model, consuming cow’s milk in the two first years of life, prolonged breast feeding, high birth weight, low pre-conception mother’s weight was associated with abdominal obesity. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the importance of early life factors on weight disorders in particular obesity and abdominal obesity of children and adolescents in later life.
Keywords: Weight disorders, double burden of nutrition disorders, early life factors, anthropometric indices
Abstract: Emotional eating is one of the important factors in etiology of obesity and eating disorders. This study aimed to compare gender differences in response to emotional eating and to identify the anthropometric indices and dietary intake factors correlation with emotional eating. A sample of 247 subjects from three schools in Tabriz University of medical sciences in Iran was participated in the study. Each participant filled out a general ten-item and an emotional eating fourteen-item questionnaire. Statistical analyses of the study were conducted by an independent t -test, a chi-square, Pearson correlations and logistic regression using the SPSS version 19. The…findings of this investigation indicated that body mass index (BMI) (r = – 0.759, p < 0.0001 and r = – 0.818, p < 0.0001), waist circumference (WC) (r = – 0.217, p = 0.014 and r = – 0.182, p = 0.048) and dietary energy intake (r = – 0.221, p = 0.012 and r = – 0.186, p = 0.024) correlated significantly with emotional eating in female and male groups respectively. The female had higher emotional eating score versus the male (6.56±1.56 and 6.47±1.21), respectively. Marital status, smoking, recent weight loss, and weight gain, were the strong predictors of the emotional eating. Knowing predicting factors of emotional eating and understanding the fact that gender differences could affect chances of being emotional eater can help us provide appropriate nutritional and psychological educational programs in the community. This can in tern control the emotional eating status and consequently lead to beneficial outcomes in the level of individuals’ health in the society.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Frequent sweet consumption constitutes a significant health issue among children which leads to a predisposition towards overweight and cardiovascular disease risk factors. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of sweet consumption and to identify associated lifestyle factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational study. Population data derived from a health survey carried out in 2015 on a representative sample of 177091 children aged 8 to 17 years. Sweet consumption and dietary habits were evaluated using questionnaires (KIDMED index). Frequency of sweets consumption constitutes a question of KIDMED and it was classified as rare or frequent. Physical activity status, screen…time and sleeping habits were assessed through self-completed questionnaires. RESULTS: More boys than girls (19.6% vs. 17.5%, p < 0.001) consumed sweet frequently (more than twice daily). Sweet consumption was strongly associated with unhealthy dietary habits such as skipping breakfast and fast food consumption. Adjusting for several covariates, insufficient dietary habits, insufficient sleep and increased screen time were increased on participant’s odds of being frequent sweet consumers by 80% (95% CI 0.17–0.23), 18% (95% CI1.05–1.29) and 218% (95% CI 1.96–2.41) in boys and by 80% (95% CI 0.17–0.24), 31% (95% CI1.17–1.47) and 241% (95% CI 2.15–2.72) in girls. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent sweet consumption was associated with an unhealthy lifestyle profile.