Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 9, issue 3
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Algeria, iron deficiency anemia is a major public health problem. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency anemia and to investigate the factors associated with iron deficiency anemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 368 clinically healthy children aged between 6 months and 5years living in a poor rural area of Algeria were assessed in this study. Biological indicators of iron status were assayed, and those of malnutrition were calculated. Socio-economic and dietary data were also collected. RESULTS: The prevalence of iron…deficiency anemia was 20.92% (95%CI: 17–25%), accounting for 86.5% of anemia cases. Nutritional components appeared as a potential cause of its occurrence. Binary logistic regression demonstrated that this elevated frequency is significantly correlated with risk factors relating to infancy(<2 years) (OR = 2.68 [95CI% : 1.47–4.97]),late introduction of weaning foods (OR = 2.51 [95%CI:1.29–5.05]), exclusive lactation(OR = 3.22 [95%CI:1.37–7.6]), low educational level of mothers (OR = 3.42 [95%CI: 1.52–7.65]) and gender (boys) (OR = 2.39 [95%CI:1.39–4.39]). CONCLUSIONS: Anemia and iron deficiency anemia were significant health problems among the studied sample. The improvement of the socio-economic status of mothers and weaning practices should both be included in public health strategies for the control and prevention of iron deficiency anemia in our population.
Keywords: Iron deficiency anemia, anemia, preschool children, Algeria, rural area
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In recent years, dietary pattern analysis has emerged as an alternative and complementary approach to examining the relationship between diet and risk of chronic diseases. Obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke and some cancers have become a more frequent cause of disability and premature death in both developed and developing countries. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate food availability and the evolution of dietary patterns in Italy between 1961 and 2011 to identify possible contributing factors to the rise in NCDs such obesity and MetS. METHODOLOGY: An ecological…study was conducted on the basis of Food Balance Sheet (FBS) (kcal per capita per day), of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). With this data cluster analysis (hierarchical and K-means) was performed to identify dietary patterns. By analysis of variance ANOVA and post hoc analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test intercluster were analysed each food. RESULTS: Three periods were identified. The availability of kcal/person/day increased slightly, but showed important changes in dietary patterns composition and they showed clearly changes, it moved away of the Mediterranean diet and its composition was found more in line with the so-called nutritional or dietary transition. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the rise in NCDs as MetS and its components during this time, the observed changes in eating habits may have contributed to deleterious effects on metabolic heath. Thus, dietary modifications may be warranted.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: High anthocyanin in black rice ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin resistance through improving GLUT4-RBP4 system and lipid profile. Activity of anthocyanin will increase during the fermentation process. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of goat milk kefir supplemented with black rice extract on blood glucose, lipid profile, HOMA-IR and RBP4 gene expression in diabetic rats. METHOD: Twenty five male Spargue Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: 1) normal rats; 2) diabetic rats; 3) diabetic rats +1 mL of kefir/200 g body weight (BW); 4) diabetic rats +2 mL of kefir/200 g BW; and 5) diabetic rats +4 mL of kefir/200 g…BW. Blood glucose levels were measured before and after intervention, whereas lipid profile, HOMA-IR and RBP4 gene expression in white adipose tissue were analyzed at the end of intervention. RESULTS : The blood glucose, lipid profile, HOMA-IR, and RBP4 gene expression in diabetic rats and diabetic rats with kefir were significantly different (p < 0.05). The diabetic rats with kefir had lowered blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, RBP4 gene expression, and HOMA-IR, and conversely HDL levels were higher than in diabetic rats. CONCLUSIONS: Goat milk kefir supplemented with black rice extract reduced insulin resistance through improving lipid profile and suppressing RBP4 expression in diabetic rats.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, RBP4 gene expression, goat milk kefir, black rice extract
Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of eleven wild edible plants from Assam of North-East India. The phytochemical study indicated the presence of several medicinally active compounds in the methanolic extracts of plants. Evaluation of antioxidant activities were done by DPPH, ABTS, H2 O2 and FRAP assays. The investigation revealed antioxidant activities with DPPH IC50 value ranging from 135.0±1.49 μg/mL (L. javanica ) to 516.34±2.52 μg/mL (B. lanceolaria ), ABTS IC50 value from 74.3±0.29 μg/mL (T. angustifolium ) to 437.77±3.93 μg/mL (D. cordata ), H2 O2 IC50 value…from 20.37±0.01 μg/mL (B. lanceolaria ) to 376.75±14.12 μg/mL (P. perfoliatum ), and the FRAP value from 64.76±7.43 μM TE/g (D. cordata ) to 799.28±7.14 μM TE/g (L. javanica ). The maximum total phenolic content (TPC) was obtained in the extract of E. fluctuans (269.49±2.96 mg GAE/g dry extract) and the lowest being in C. sinensis (26.96±9.81 mg GAE/g dry extract). S. media extract had the lowest (0.23±0.10 mg QE/g dry extract) total flavonoid content (TFC) and the maximum being in P. perfoliatum (4.34±1.03 mg QE/g dry extract). Pearson’s correlation study of the plants indicated a strong positive correlation of DPPH assay with ABTS assay. A positive correlation of FRAP with TFC, H2 O2 with FRAP, TPC and TFC, and TPC with TFC were also seen in this study. These plants could be supportive in stopping or slowing the growth of oxidative stress related diseases.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIM: Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about the metabolic profile across categories of body mass index (BMI), particularly within Asian populations. We assessed the prevalence and distribution of body size phenotypes among Iranian adults from a representative sample from Mashhad. METHOD: The Mashhad Stroke Heart Atherosclerosis Disorder (MASHAD) study cohort of 9761 adults (3903 men) aged 35–65 years were cross-categorized by BMI and metabolic status into: normal-weight metabolically healthy (NWMH), normal-weight metabolically abnormal (NWMA), overweight metabolically healthy (OvMH), overweight metabolically abnormal (OvMA),…obese metabolically healthy (OMH) and obese metabolically abnormal (OMA). Metabolic normality/abnormality was defined by the presence of any two of the following: 1) elevated blood pressure or known hypertension on treatment, 2) high serum fasted triglycerides; 3) low serum HDL-cholesterol, 4) high blood glucose or the presence of diabetes mellitus, 5) serum CRP >90th percentile. RESULTS: The distribution of obesity phenotypes was 11.6% (NWMH), 15.6% (NWMA), 10.6% (OvMH), 31.3% (OvMA), 4.9% (OMH), and 25.5% (OMA) overall. Equivalent figures were 13.1%, 24.0%, 7.7% 37.3%, 1.5% and 16.2% in men; 10.7%, 10.2%, 12.5%, 27.4%, 7.2% and 31.8% in women, p < 0.001 for gender differences. Multi variables logistic regression models comprising age gender and each of the metabolic factors was associated with 3.2% to 5.3% variations in BMI categories. CONCLUSION: The present study showed that a considerable proportion normal-weight Iranians display cardiometabolic abnormalities especially men, while a significant percentage of obese individuals, particularly women are metabolically healthy.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) affecting more than a quarter of the world’s adult population. The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of HTN, pre-HTN, and awareness of HTN in an Iranian population, and to assess the factors associated with HTN and pre-HTN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MASHAD study started in 2010 and will continue until 2020. The demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle data were collected by two certified health care professionals and a nurse. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis RESULTS: There were a…total of 9762 participants, of whom 40 % were males (n = 3903) and 60 % females (n = 5859). The means (and SD) age of the population samples were 48.8±8.4 years for the male and 47.6±8.0 years for the female subgroups. 12% (95% CI, 11.5% –12.6%) were classified as pre-hypertensive, 23% (95% CI, 22.2% –23.9%) as hypertensive and 65 % were normotensive. Of the group that was hypertensive, 55% were individuals with previously undetected HTN. The prevalence of undetected HTN in the sub-group with diabetes mellitus (DM) was 42%; and in those who were current smoking the prevalence of undetected HTN was 54.9%, indicating a high degree of co-clustering of cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSION: In an unselected population from North-Eastern Iran, hypertension was common, often undetected and frequently co-existed with other CVD risk factors.