Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 7, issue 3
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: The anti-cancer and apoptosis-inducing drugs rhein (4, 5-dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid) and emodin (3-methyl-1, 6, 8-trihydro-xyanthrax-quinone) are clinically very important. They modulate cell cycle via tumor suppressor gene, immuno-receptors and ligand activated nuclear receptors. Our recent observation suggests for the first time that 10 days of treatment of either drug with various concentrations (0.01 to 100 ¼M) differentially suppressed the sulfotransferases (SULTs) activities and protein expressions in human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2) and intestinal carcinoma (Caco-2) cell lines. SULTs are phase II drug metabolizing enzymes which catalyze the sulfuryl group transfer to hydroxyl containing endobiotics and xenobiotics. In the present investigation, dehydroepiandrosterone…SULT (hSULT1A1) was markedly suppressed by these drugs in human cells. This is the first time report which demonstrates that rhein and emodin may regulate human SULTs. Our finding has important physiological and clinical implications. It will help in the understanding of the SULTs regulations by clinically important drugs and xenobiotics. In future, these drugs may be used in a better defined manner, taking into account its SULTs suppression effects with possible physiological consequences.
Keywords: Physiological role, rhein and emodin, sulfotransferase, suppression effect
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIM: We have investigated the association between serum selenium and GPx concentrations, demographic characteristics, anthropometric features, fasting lipid profile and blood glucose levels, in healthy subjects. METHODS: Serum selenium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 197 healthy subjects. Serum glutathione peroxidase, fasting lipid profile, and blood glucose levels were also determined for each subject. Anthropometric features including blood pressure and body mass index were determined using standard procedures. RESULTS: The mean serum selenium in the whole subjects group was 116 ± 27.73 ¼g/l (range 44–209 ¼g/l). Serum Selenium and GPX concentration did not…vary significantly with gender and smoking habit. Significant differences were observed in serum selenium and GPx concentration with age (P < 0.05 and P < 0.02 respectively). Obese subjects had significantly lower serum concentrations of GPx (r = 0.281, P = 0.01). Serum GPx concentrations were inversely related to weight (P = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), fasting blood sugar (P < 0.01), serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.01), serum triglycerides (P < 0.01), and positively associated with fasting total cholesterol levels. The corresponding predictors for serum selenium level were diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) and serum triglycerides level (P = 0.05), which were inversely related. CONCLUSION: Serum concentration of selenium in an Iranian healthy population is higher than most countries however, similar to the US and UK. Moreover, serum selenium and GPx concentrations appear to be influenced by physiological factors including age. Their serum concentrations were also associated with coronary risk factors, including serum total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mediterranean dietary patterns have been associated with cardiovascular and psychological health, including positive affect. Emotion regulation has not been linked to this pattern. OBJECTIVE: The present study prospectively examined the relationship between Mediterranean diet and later emotion regulation and whether positive or negative affect mediated any such relationship. METHODS: Data was derived from the Adventist Health Study-2 (2002-6), and Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Substudy (2006-7; 2010-11). We assessed adherence to Mediterranean diet using the Trichopoulou score at baseline, and responses to Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (2006-7) and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (2010-11) in…1,699 men and 3,293 women. Statistical analyses were performed using multiple linear regression and Hayes PROCESS SPSS macros. RESULTS: Mediterranean dietary adherence scores were inversely related to difficulty with clarity of emotional responses (B = –0.013, p = 0.006, 95% CI [–0.23, –0.004]) but unrelated to difficulty with awareness of emotional responses or lack of access to strategies for regulating emotions. Positive and negative affect fully mediated the diet and clarity relationship by respectively decreasing and increasing difficulty with clarity (effect scores –0.007 [95% CI –0.009, –0.005] and –0.005 [95% CI –0.008, –0.003]). CONCLUSIONS: Mediterranean diet adherence showed association with emotional clarity via increasing positive and decreasing negative affect.
Abstract: MNGIE is an uncommon, autosomal recessive multisystem disorder, caused by loss of function of mutations in the TYMP/ECGF1 encoding for thymidine phosphorilase (TP). MNGIE phenotype is characterized by gastrointestinal disorders, peripheral neuropathy, ophtalmoplegia and leukoencephalopathy. We report a clinical case of a 23 year old female, affected by MNGIE and submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT). At the first nutritional status examination, weight was 36 Kg, BMI was 15 Kg/m2 and bioimpedance showed a protein-caloric malnutrition. The clinical history revealed asthenia, abdominal pain, headache and amenorrhea. Her diet was unbalanced and insufficient. We elaborated a balanced and…hyper caloric diet with a protein supplementation (10 g/day) with a concentrate of isolated whey proteins with high soluble cysteine content and a plant-based superoxide dismutase (SOD). Follows up were planned monthly, then after 3 months and the prescribed calorie intake was finally reached with a gradual improvement of her nutritional status. After one year and a half, weight was 40,5 Kg, BMI was 16,9 with an improvement of blood tests, BIA and muscle strength. Clinically the patient reported a significant improvement of asthenia, fatigue and of abdominal pain but amenorrhea persisted. Patients affected by MNGIE and submitted to HSCT improve their clinical status but malnutrition often persists. Nutritional counselling can positively affect clinical course of this disease, considerably improving body composition and symptoms.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ulceration of the foot in diabetes is common and disabling Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU) are a dangerous and invalidating complication of diabetes. Traditionally they are classified by their aetiology, but many other factors may affect their evolution. Anamnestic, anthropometric and laboratory criteria are recommended for evaluation of Nutritional Status. They are suitable in clinical practice, but we argue that they are unfit to identify Malnutrition in specific populations, as DFU patients. Aim of our study was to evaluate the nutritional pattern and some other clinical and laboratory parameters among the ones tested routinarly in ambulatorial setting in…a group of type 2 diabetic patients with DFU to characterize and single out the most efficient parameters useful for diagnosis of malnutrition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 23 non healing DFU subjects and 24 type 2 diabetic subjects without DFU, as control. For the evaluation of body composition we used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA 101 Akern ®). Phase Angle (pA) was pointed as a marker of extracellular/intracellular water rate and of body cell mass (BCM). We also recorded HbA1c, disease duration, Haemoglobin (Hb), Albumin, Total Proteins, Creatinin, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), BMI and any weight variation in the last two months. RESULTS: No significant difference for Albumin, Serum Proteins, CRP, Creatinin, Hb was found. Only the pA was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) in DFU subjects. Furthermore, the distribution of BMI and Hb values in reference ranges do not differ in DFU group and in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The routine clinical and laboratory evaluation tests are not reliable to detect dynamic changes of the nutritional status in DFU subjects whereas bioelectrical measurements are useful in the evaluation of body cell mass changes in these subjects.
Keywords: Evaluation of Nutritional Status, Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU), malnutrition, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), body cell mass, phase angle
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Improved approaches to treat obesity are urgently needed, especially those feasible for the primary health care system. Such treatments should preferably reduce body weight by altering the long term habitual dietary and lifestyle pattern. In this work we studied the weight reducing effect of using the ketogenic, low calorie Eurodiet approach for 7 months. METHODS: Forty-four patients with a baseline BMI of 34.8 were recruited to participate in a 7 month Eurodiet treatment program at Dr. Fedon Lindberg’s Clinic in Oslo, Norway. Mean participant age was 50 years and final study group consisted of 8 men and…24 women. Primary outcome was weight loss. Body weight, body composition and blood variables were measured at baseline and after 7 months. The Eurodiet method is a four phase method, and is initiated with a ketogenic very low calorie diet based on Eurodiet products and selected vegetables. Food intake is then gradually increased until the patient has established a Mediterranean inspired, low glycemic load diet. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients completed the 7 month treatment. Average weight loss was 14.7 kg (p “ 0.01) or 14.2% of baseline weight. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) showed a mean loss of 2.8 kg fat free mass. The treatment resulted in statistically significant improvement in the risk profile for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Fasting serum glucose was reduced by 0.4 mmol/L, insulin by 31.2 pmol/L, total cholesterol by 0.3 mmol/L, LDL-cholesterol by 0.3 mmol/L, and fasting triglycerides by 0.7 mmol/L, and HDL-cholesterol was increased by 0.2 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: The Eurodiet treatment method of obesity appeared effective over 7 months, and was accompanied by an improved risk profile for diabetes and CVD. The long term effects are not documented and such documentation should be investigated.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To monitor improvements and follow-up of patients with EDs (Eating Disorders), and BED (Binge Eating Disorder) in the Regional Reference Center for the Physiopathology of Nutrition of Teramo, Italy. METHODS: All the access for EDs (diagnosed according to DSM-IV) were recorded at first visit and follow up. The diagnoses and characteristics of patients from the Teramo area, who enjoy easier access to the service were compared to those of patients from other local health authorities. The degree of improvement in BMI between the first and last appointment of patients with AN (anorexia nervosa), and the average time…of treatment, were noted. Microsoft Excel was used for data storing and processing. Statistical analysis was performed by the X-Lstat software. RESULTS: Of the 169 patients registered, 90.5% were female. The average age of patients followed by the Centre for eating disorders was 29.3 (60.9% of the cases were in the youth age bracket). In local patients, the AN is corrected with greater success and in less time compared to cases of AN in active mobility. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that an integrated multidisciplinary outpatient service provides continuity of care and more support to patients coming from the province. The data demonstrate that the ability of the outpatient structure to intercept early cases and offer effective therapeutic itineraries is directly related to its accessibility. These data provide valuable references for a more rational and thoughtful use of available resources and to begin the development of a registry of EDs in Abruzzo’s region in center of Italy.
Abstract: BAGKGROUND: Weight loss maintenance contributing behaviors have not been adequately studied in Mediterranean populations. OBJECTIVE: The MedWeight study created a registry of weight loss maintainers and regainers, to assess and compare their features and lifestyle habits. METHODS: Participants had intentionally lost ≥10% of their starting weight; maintainers were keeping the weight off for one year minimum, whereas regainers had regained the loss. Volunteers answered online questionnaires, regarding medical history, body weight, diet and exercise habits, social support, and personality traits. Two telephone 24-h dietary recalls per volunteer are conducted. Questionnaire follow-up will take place one year after study…entrance. RESULTS: Thus far, 169 maintainers and 57 regainers participated in the study, 43% men. Mean age was 32 years, with regainers being older than maintainers. Maintainers were sustaining a 21% loss, for over four years. Maximum weight and maximum Body Mass Index (BMI) did not differ between groups, but maintainers originally lost more weight than regainers. Maintainers lost weight mainly by themselves, whereas more regainers had consulted with a dietitian. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data showed no differences between groups in maximum weight and BMI ever reached, but differences were found in weight loss methods employed and initial weight loss achieved.
Keywords: Weight loss maintenance, maintainers, regainers, obesity, overweight