Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 7, issue 2
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Vitamin E collectively refers to eight chemically distinct isoforms: α, β, γ and δ tocopherols and tocotrienols. Because α-tocopherol is the most abundant form of vitamin E in human tissues, most studies of vitamin E's antioxidant effect on bone have only investigated the effects of α-tocopherol and many supplements do not contain the other isoforms. Despite this, alpha-tocopherol shows mixed results in animal and human studies of bone, with the most positive outcomes obtained under conditions of oxidative stress. Some studies even show a detrimental effect but because so few human studies measure baseline or follow-up blood levels, it is…impossible to determine whether the study population were in deficiency or excess. The only human intervention study to measure blood levels showed that supplementation caused an excess, which was dose-dependently associated with suppression of vitamin K-dependent proteins, thereby increasing risk of osteoporosis. It is likely that α-tocopherol will prove to have a U-shaped dose/benefit curve, as with some other fat-soluble vitamins. The remaining isoforms show greater promise than alpha-tocopherol for bone health, particularly because supplementation of α-tocopherol can suppress their bioavailability. In particular, γ-tocopherol and α- and γ-tocotrienol have shown improved results for bone relative to α-tocopherol.
Keywords: Vitamin E, tocopherols, tocotrienols, bone
Abstract: The objective of this research was to collect data on the prevalence of phenylketonuria in Jordan, to assess the nutritional status and physical growth of a sample of PKU patients in Jordan using anthropometric measurements and evaluation of the adequacy of their diets. Twenty five patients were divided, according to their age, into four groups: 4–6 months age (n = 6), 8–12 months age (n = 5), 2 years old (n = 7) and 4 years old (n = 7). Height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were measured. Dietary intake was taken using three-day food records, and blood phenylalanine…(Phe) concentration was determined. The results indicated that 48% of the whole sample had poor physical growth; about (66%) of patients in group 1, (40%) of patients in group 2, (28%) of patients in group 3 and (57%) of patients in group 4 were underweight. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were found between protein intake and each of head circumference (r = 0.434) weight (0.420) and height (r = 0.502) of patients. The protein intakes were 77% and 88% of the recommended levels for groups 1 and 2 respectively. Other low dietary intakes included energy (in groups 1 and 4), fat (in groups 1 and 3) and selenium (in group 1). All patients had controlled blood Phe levels except those in group 4 (4 years age) who had a concentration of 358 μmol/L. It is concluded that there is need for counseling the community about the relationship between PKU and consanguineous marriages and for stressing the importance of monitoring the dietary management of PKU patients.
Abstract: Fasting and caloric restriction during pregnancy had been reported to impose negative effects on maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Some research suggests that maternal fasting increases the potential for developing irreversible mental and physical disabilities in children. Even excused, Muslim pregnant women had been accustomed to fast during the ninth lunar month of Ramadan. This comprehensive review aimed at addressing the current evidence pertaining to the effect of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting (RIF) practiced by Muslims pregnant women on maternal and fetal health along with pregnancy outcomes. Current research suggests that maternal fasting during Ramadan has no deleterious impacts on the…birth weight or biochemical and biophysical parameters of babies. There is a limited long term research that addressed the effects of RIF on the health of fetuses that were in utero. Milk macro composition was not found to be affected profoundly upon RIF, with significant changes in some micronutrients were reported. Additionally, RIF seems to affect some macronutrients and most micronutrient intakes; therefore, it would be prudent for pregnant and lactating women to utilize the excuse for not fasting during Ramadan. Further research is needed to address the long term consequences of maternal RIF on mother and child health later in life.
Keywords: Maternal and fetal health, Ramadan intermittent fasting, biophysical profile, human milk, doppler indices
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The type of dietary protein plays an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. This study tests the hypothesis that different dietary proteins may alter insulin sensitivity in rats after fructose ingestion. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to investigate the effects of different dietary proteins in a rat model of metabolic syndrome created by feeding a high fructose diet. METHODS: Rats were fed with starch or high fructose diet containing casein, egg albumin or soy protein for 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress markers, lipid profile and adipokines were measured. RESULTS: F-CAS group registered insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Compared…to the F-CAS group, F-EGG and F-SOY animals showed improved insulin sensitivity and lower fasting levels of glucose, insulin and lipids and increased antioxidant protection. In addition, F-EGG and F-SOY animals showed improved glucose metabolism compared to F-CAS group. Protein variation also affects the levels of adipokines and adipokine receptor mRNA expression in liver. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that soy protein had a better effect than egg protein with respect to insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status and adipokine expression, while egg protein was more effective than soy in reducing oxidative damage despite continued intake of fructose.
Abstract: Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), a fruit crop belonging to family Ericaceae is regarded a repository of functional phytochemicals. Its components, phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and cinnamic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanidins) have been credited to confer manifold healthy properties. The berries have been evidenced to impart relief from obesity, diabetes, retinal injury, heart, liver, stomach and kidney inflammation, tumours, microbial infection, cognitive decline and bone loss. Consumer interest in these berries is reflected in the slew of fortified-foods. The nutraceutical potentials of these nutrient powerhouses warrant deeper investigation for their optimal exploitation. This literature review elucidates the probable modes of…biological actions, current status and future scopes of blueberry for prcessed food and dietary supplement development. Relevant information has been mined from PUBMED, SCOPUS and Google scholar database and assembled into an insightful account.