Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 6, issue 1
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Humans have known lentils (Lens culinaris L.) since the dawn of civilization. The current work is a comprehensive review of lentils composition, nutritional value, and health benefits. The article addresses major proteins identified in lentils and their bioactive peptides, including lectins, defensins, and protease inhibitors. In addition, this review discusses the complex carbohydrate fractions in lentils, particularly the resistant starches, oligosaccharides, and dietary fibers with emphasis on their biomedical properties. Also, the current review discusses minerals and vitamins as well as the non-nutritive bioactive phytochemicals of lentils which add to the promising potential for clinical applications in the management and…prophylaxis of several chronic human illnesses. The article finds out that various potential health benefits have been described for lentils such as anticarcinogenic, blood pressure-lowering, hypocholesterolemic and glycemic load-lowering effects. The proposed mechanisms behind each health benefit are discussed.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antioxidant activity of solvent extracts prepared from two Indian molluscs viz., Loligo duvauceli Orbigny and Donax cuneatus Linnaeus. For this purpose, several tests were used such as DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), reducing ability and total antioxidant activity. Ethyl acetate extract of Loligo duvauceli showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity (58%), reducing ability and antioxidant activity (64%) compared to other extracts. All the extracts showed concentration-dependent activity, and increase in concentration increased the antioxidant activities. Therefore, solvent extracts of L. duvauceli and D. cuneatus are rich sources of antioxidants that justify their…wide use as natural antioxidants and points out other possible therapeutical uses in the different diseases produced by free radicals.
Abstract: Diseases and injuries impose oxidative stress on different organs and systems of the body. This study was conducted to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of soy protein isolate against acute liver toxicity induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA). Forty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Groups A and B consumed a casein containing diet and the Group C received a soy protein isolate (SPI) containing diet for 18 days. Group A was then given an intra-peritoneal saline injection and continued on a casein diet for another 4 days before being killed. Each animal from groups B and C was given…a single intra-peritoneal injection of DMNA (30 mg/kg) on the 18th day of the study. All groups continued their diets for 4 days before their sacrifice. The serum ALT decreased and albumin increased significantly in rats fed 20 % SPI containing diet (P < 0.05). Histological results showed that SPI improved DMNA-induced alteration in the liver structure. Morphological and biochemical data suggest that soy protein isolate containing diet decreased DMNA-induced liver damage.
Keywords: Hepatic failure, Biochemistry, Histopathology, Soy protein isolate
Abstract: Body mass index (BMI) is the most useful epidemiological measure of obesity. However, there is increasing evidence suggesting that World Health Organization (WHO)-proposed BMI cutoff points for overweight and obesity cannot be readily applied to the Asian population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to establish appropriate cutoff points of BMI for defining overweight and obesity based on body fat percentage (BF%) of the Bengalee (Indian) population. The study was conducted on 654 subjects (18–60 years), of which 336 were men and 318 were women. The subjects were selected from different parts of the state of West Bengal, India.…Anthropometric measures and blood pressure were obtained using standard techniques. The BMI and BF% were calculated using the standard equation. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was done to determine the appropriate cutoff points of BMI for overweight and obesity while taking BF% as the standard. Based on BMI, 12.50 % of men and 13.84 % of women were overweight and 1.79 % of men and 1.89 % of women were obese. On the basis of WHO gold standard, 18.75 % of men and 14.47 % of women were overweight and 9.82 % of men and 9.43 % of women were obese. ROC curve analysis showed a low sensitivity and high specificity of conventional cutoff points of BMI for identifying overweight and obesity. A lower cutoff value of BMI 21.87 kg/m2 for overweight and BMI 24.33 kg/m2 for obesity displayed good sensitivity and specificity, and an optimum area under the curve. We suggest a BMI of 21.87 and 24.33 kg/m2 as the optimum cutoff points to define overweight and obesity, respectively, for the Bengalee population.
Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, Body fat percentage, BMI, Cutoff points
Abstract: The aim of this study was the investigation of the dietary habits of Albanian immigrants living in Greece for at least 3 years in comparison to those living in Albania permanently. The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional one. The sample consisted of 638 persons, of whom 299 were living in Greece and 339 were permanently living in Albania. Dietary habits were recorded by a quantitative questionnaire, including all food categories that have been used for the estimation of the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Demographic information, data on education, work and income were recorded. Data collection took place in…both Greece and Albania by means of a personal interview. The mean MDS was 32 (±4.2) and 30.3 (±4.5) for Albanian immigrants in Greece and residents of Albania, respectively, (p < 0.001). Bivariate analysis identified that the participants with higher education level, more physical activity, monthly family income ≥$\euro$ 1,500, those with 3–7 meals per day, those with 5–7 breakfasts a week, employed and ex-smokers displayed higher MDS. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, residents of Greece had higher MDS than residents of Albania. Also, those with higher education level, those with more physical activity, those with 3–7 meals per day and those employed had higher MDS. The findings of this study showed that dietary habits of Albanian immigrants in Greece were improved compared to those of the Albanians living in their home country.
Abstract: Malnutrition affects the growth, efficacy of treatments and quality of life in children suffering from thalassemia. This study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of thalassemic patients and to determine the factors involved. Data were obtained from 140 thalassemic patients aged 8–18 years in Mashhad, Iran, on anthropometry, food record and biochemical profile. The prevalence of malnutrition was 44.3 % for boys and 19.6 % for girls, as determined by low body mass index. Furthermore, 44.3 % of boys and 37.7 % of girls were found to be of short stature. Sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness and…arm muscle area (AMA) calculation showed the incidence of 7.4 % leanness and 60.7 % wasting among thalassemic children and adolescents. The average of energy intake met 74 % of recommended dietary allowance, although more than 71 % under-reporting was calculated for food records. The intake of energy, macronutrients, zinc, iron and vitamin E was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with anthropometric measures. Age, age at first transfusion, age of starting chelation and serum alkaline phosphatase were considered as positive predictors for nutritional status, whereas puberty, gender and fasting blood sugar as negative predictors. Nutritional status of thalassemic children and adolescents should be monitored, focusing on their nutrition education and supplementation, treatment protocol and control on blood sugar. These may play important roles in enhancing the quality of life in thalassemic children and adolescents.
Keywords: Malnutrition, Short stature, Diet, Children, Thalassemia
Abstract: The nutritional status of hospitalised patients is generally poor on admission and in some cases declines during their stay in hospital. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of a group of hospitalised patients on admission and at discharge from a large teaching hospital in Northwestern Iran. Male and female patients, who were anticipated to stay in hospital for more than 1 week on the general medical or chest medicine ward, gave informed consent to take part in the study. One hundred and fourteen patients (53.6 ± 17.2 years, body mass index (BMI) 21.0 ± 5.7…kg/m2 (mean ± standard error of the mean) were recruited to evaluate the nutritional status. Changes in bioimpedance and anthropometric markers of nutritional status were recorded. The NRS 2002 (nutritional risk screening) method was used to assess nutritional status in patients on admission and prior to discharge. Malnutrition, as assessed using NRS 2002 method, decreased during the stay of patients in hospital (2.8 ± 1.0 versus 1.8 ± 1.0, p < 0.001). This study showed that prevalence of malnutrition was as high as 63.1 % on admission to the general medical and chest wards. The nutritional status of patients was significantly changed over the period of their stay in hospital, as assessed using the NRS 2002 method, although patients lost weight due to the acute care situation.
Abstract: The present study was designed to analyze cord blood atherogenic index (AI) in newborns of normal pregnant and preeclamptic subjects and to correlate them with birth weight and maternal AI. The study consisted of 50 healthy pregnant women (Group I: controls) and 50 women with preeclampsia. Ten milliliter cord blood was collected from placental end of umbilical cord and 5 ml of maternal venous sample was drawn from antecubital vein at the time of delivery. Serum was separated by centrifugation and Apo A-I and Apo B levels were analyzed by immunoturbidimetric Immunoassay kits. AI was calculated as ratio of Apo…B to Apo A-I. Apo B levels were significantly elevated in Group II in both cord blood and maternal blood as compared to Group I (p < 0.001). Apo A-I levels were lower in maternal blood and higher in cord blood of group II. In maternal blood, AI was higher in Group II as compared to Group I (p < 0.001). In group I, a significant positive correlation was observed between cord blood AI and birth weight and values being higher in males. In group II, a significant negative correlation observed between cord blood AI and birth weight was higher in females.
Abstract: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed with 40 healthy individuals with joint discomfort. The effect of oral supplementation with a natural product containing hyaluronic acid included in a yoghurt matrix was evaluated in terms of functional and quality-of-life parameters. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure maximum muscle strength, total work and mean power. Participants were divided into 2 groups (n = 20) and ate yoghurt that was either supplemented or not supplemented with the hyaluronic acid product daily for a period of 90 days. The increase in the maximum peak torque of the knee extensors compared to…baseline values was 7.6 ± 7.6 Nm for the supplemented yoghurt group and 2.5 ± 4.7 Nm for the control group at 180°/s (P = 0.0582), and 6.5 ± 5.8 Nm for the supplemented yoghurt group and −1.0 ± 7.1 Nm for the control group at 240°/s (P < 0.05). The same pattern of response was observed in total work and in mean power (P < 0.05). Differences were less pronounced in the knee flexors. No differences were detected in the Lequesne score and SF-36 survey except for the social functioning subscale at 1 month follow-up. This prospective placebo-controlled nutritional study confirmed that 3 months of oral administration of a natural product containing HA (Mobilee™) in healthy individuals with joint discomfort of the knee provides improvements in muscle strength.