Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 5, issue 2
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Prebiotics are the non-digestible food ingredients, which help in the successful digestion of the food components in the gut and lower intestine. They play an important role in the promotion of the growth of “good” bacteria in the intestine and gut of humans. In other words, nutraceuticals are beneficial for the maintenance of gut microbiota, microflora, and human health. This study specially reviewed different articles on the role of prebiotics in hepatic encephalopathy, cardiovascular diseases, constipation, diarrhea, hypotriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, prebiotics are supplements to improve health and can favorably treat biological disorders.
Keywords: Prebiotics, Gut microflora, Nutraceuticals
Abstract: Bran is the hard outer layer of cereal grains, rich in a myriad of healthy phytochemicals viz. phenolics, flavonoids, glucans and pigments. Unfortunately, these nutrition-rich components are often discarded during milling out of ignorance, organoleptic reasons and rancidity problems. Knowing the phytochemical constituents and pharmacological profile of bran is expected to give insight to their potential application in promotion of health. This study illustrates the antioxidant and anticancer properties of the cereal bran and its derivatives. The current contribution provides a comprehensive review of the bioactive phytochemical constituents of bran, their extraction techniques, the antioxidant and anticancer properties. The issues…associated with bran stabilization in foods and enhancement strategies for extraction and bioavailability of bran nutrients are discussed. Bacteria and yeast fermentation of bran have been observed to improve their nutritional profile. Bran products promise potential applications as nutritional ingredients in functional foods. Leading food manufactures have already started fortifying food products with bran, at the wake of the discovery of its overwhelming health-promoting potentials.
Abstract: Protein hydrolysates are economically important value added products in the food industry. Hydrolysis of fish proteins is practiced for the improvement of nutritional characteristics, retarding deterioration, removal of toxic or inhibitory ingredients and modification of functional properties. Four different body parts viz., skin, muscle, bone and viscera of horse mackerel (Magalaspis cordyla) and croaker (Otolithes ruber) were hydrolyzed, through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion procedure using commercial proteases (pepsin, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin). The obtained protein hydrolysates were lyophilized and characterized for functional properties like solubility, emulsifying activity index (EAI) and foaming ability at different pH ranging from 2 to 10. After…6 h hydrolysis, all the hydrolysates showed 70% (p < 0.05) protein solubility at different pH evaluated. Lower emulsifying and foaming capacity (p < 0.05) was noticed at pH 4 and a gradual increase in these properties observed with the increasing pH. Current results revealed that these hydrolysates from various body parts of horse mackerel showed good functional properties in wide range of pH and protein hydrolysate obtained from viscera has showed high functional properties than remaining body parts. These results suggest that horse mackerel and croaker protein hydrolysates could find potential applications as functional food ingredients as emulsifiers and foaming agents.
Keywords: Protein hydrolysate, Solubility, Emulsifying properties, Horse mackerel, Croaker
Abstract: Aloe vera juice was prepared from aloe vera gel. The standardization of aloe vera juice was done using six different treatments with strawberry and vanilla. Sensory overall acceptability of the product blended with sugar in the ratio of 50:50 was most promising. The juice was packed using three different packaging materials (viz., plastic bottle, glass bottle, and tetra pack) and stored at 5 and 10 °C, respectively. For increasing the shelf life of juice by the above treatment, the hurdle technology was employed. In hurdle technology two methods of preservation, chemical and physical methods were used. Physical method included pasteurization…while chemical method involved the use of class II preservatives viz., citric acid, sorbic acid, sodium benzoate, and ascorbic acid. Chemical treatment was more efficient for vitamin A and C.
Keywords: Aloe vera gel, Hurdle technology, Vitamin A and C, Shelf life, Packaging
Abstract: The phenolic contents of methanolic extracts from five varieties of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits from Algeria, Deglet Nour (DN), Degla Baidha (DB), Ghars (Gh), Tamjhourt (Tam), and Tafezauine (Taf) were measured in this work. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were also evaluated. Total phenolic content ranged from 41.80 to 84.73 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/ 100 g and the total flavonoid content varied from 7.52 to 14.10 mg rutin equivalents (RE)/100 g. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts were evaluated in vitro using scavenging assays of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical ion (ABTS+ ) and potassium ferricyanide…complex as reducing power assay. Effective scavenging concentration (IC50 ) on DPPH radical ranged from 10.83 to 21.27 mg/l, the IC50 values decreased in the order DN > Gh > Tam > DB > Taf. ABTS radical cation scavenging activity (trolox equivalent 1.66–3.35 mM), the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values decreased in the order of DN > Gh > DB > Tam > Taf. In the potassium ferricyanide complex assay, the antioxidant capacity of the extracts ranged between 2.06 and 4.21 mM ascorbic acid equivalents and the ascorbic acid equivalents antioxidant capacity values of the extracts decreased in the order Gh > Tam > DB > DN > Taf. These results suggest that all date varieties constitute a good source of natural antioxidants and could potentially be considered as a functional food.
Keywords: Date palm fruit, Phenolic content, Antioxidant activity, ABTS, DPPH, Reducing power
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of arginine-rich coconut kernel protein (CKP) on alloxan-induced diabetes in comparison with L-arginine and an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. 1-month-old 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats, weighing 130–150 g, were randomly divided into five groups: group I-normal control, group II-diabetic control, group III-diabetic + CKP, group IV-diabetic + L-arginine, group V-diabetic + glibenclamide (0.6 mg/100 g body weight). The rats were induced diabetes by injecting a single dose of alloxan (150 mg/100 g body weight) intraperitoneally. After the experimental period, various parameters were analyzed. The results showed that diabetic rats treated with CKP,…arginine, and glibenclamide reduced the serum glucose and had no significant effect on total serum protein content compared to diabetic control. Serum urea level was found to be comparatively reduced in arginine-, CKP-, and glibenclamide-treated rats. Toxicological analysis showed that arginine, CKP, and glibenclamide delivered to diabetic rats significantly reduced the SGOT, SGPT and ALP activities to the basal level. Histopathological analysis also showed a comparable reversible effect of CKP on alloxan-induced pancreatic damage with respect to arginine and glibenclamide-treated rats. These results clearly indicate the non-toxic and antidiabetic properties of CKP, possibly mediated through arginine.
Abstract: The aim of this intervention trial was to evaluate the impact of consumption of two different types of strawberry jam on glycaemic status in 16 non-complicated and 7 type 2 diabetic volunteers, having a body mass index higher than 30 kg/m2 (obesity status) and selected according to the specific criteria. Volunteers consumed a test meal consisting of 30 g of white bread, 50 g of an experimental jam (sweetened with organic apple juice) and 150 ml of whole cow milk; a control jam (sweetened with white beet sugar) was provided within the same test meal with a week gap.…For the determination of glucose and insulin levels, venous blood samples were collected after overnight fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after the ingestion of the test meal. Both groups of volunteers had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) increase of glucose and insulin levels at 30 and 60 min after the consumption of the experimental jam with respect to the control one, highlighting the importance of the type of carbohydrates in controlling glycaemic status: indeed, this type of jam, containing mainly fructose, was successful not only for diabetics but also for subjects at risk of developing this pathology, with a severe obesity condition. The consumption of this kind of product could be a strategy to enhance the quality of life in type 2 diabetic people, helping them to follow a dietary regimen including highly accepted food.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Glycaemic status, Obesity status
Abstract: To manage dyslipidemia using diet recommendations based on argan oil consumption, we were interested in studying, for the first time, the effect of argan oil consumption on plasma lipids in never-treated Moroccan dyslipidemic patients. Twenty-four dyslipidemic patients from the endocrinology department of University Hospital of Rabat (Morocco) were included in this interventional study. The study design consists to two diet periods. In the first diet period of 2 weeks, all patients consumed 20 g/day of butter in breakfast. In the second period of 3 weeks (nutritional intervention), all patients were randomized to two diet groups: one group of 15 patients…in which the 20 g/day of butter was substituted by 25 ml/day of argan oil with toasted bread for breakfast. The second group of nine patients for whom, both argan oil and olive oil were removed from their diet while keeping the 20 g/day of butter for breakfast. During this period, all patients were placed under a lifestyle and diet recommended for the dyslipidemic patient as reported by the French Agency for Health Products Safety (AFSSAPS). Serum lipid [total cholesterol (total-chol), triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-chol) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-chol)] and anthropometric parameters were measured at the end of both periods. Both groups of patients have showed an improvement of lipid parameters in the end of the interventional period compared to the end of stabilization period by reducing total-chol and LDL-chol; and triglycerides and increasing HDL-chol. However, the change in atherogenic lipids was significantly different (P < 0.04) in the consumers group of argan oil compared to the control group; 30 versus 14% for total-chol, 46 versus 24.5% for triglycerides, 24 versus 15% for LDL-chol, respectively. While the increase in HDL-chol in consumers group of argan oil was different but not significantly compared to the control group; 17 versus 14% (P = 0.1). We have demonstrated for the first time that consumption of argan oil improves the lipid status in never-treated patients with dyslipidemia and can therefore be recommended in nutritional prevention in the management of dyslipidemia.
Keywords: Argan oil, Diet, Dyslipidemia, Human nutritional prevention, Interventional study