Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 16, issue 3
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Carbohydrates as starch are a staple part of human diet. Upon starch digestion, glucose is absorbed, eliciting an insulin response. Glucose absorption kinetics (rapid or slow) depend on starch structure. Products made from wholemeal/wholegrain flour cause moderate glycemic and insulinemic responses and support a healthy lifestyle. OBJECTIVE: To review the nutritional value in terms of the in vivo glycemic and insulinemic index and the in vitro digestibility characteristics of six wholemeal/wholegrain commercial bakery products. METHODS: We analyzed in vitro the rapidly- and slowly- available glucose (RAG and SAG), the…rapidly- and slowly- digestible starch (RDS and SDS), and the resistant starch (RS) fraction of the six wholemeal/wholegrain products against one white type of bread. The glycemic (GI) and the insulinemic index (II) were estimated in vivo in a group of eleven healthy individuals. RESULTS: The glycemic indices of the wholemeal/wholegrain flour biscuits and breads were low, (range 28 ± 3.2 to 41 ± 3.9, Mean+SEM) correlating with the insulinemic indices. RAG positively correlated with both GI and II, with fiber having a marginal correlation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that both conventional and non-conventional wholemeal/wholegrain bakery products have low GI and moderate II, correlating to in vitro starch digestibility and type of processing.
Keywords: Glycemic index (GI), insulinemic index (II), starch, glucose
Abstract: Betalains are water-soluble, nitrogen-containing vacuolar pigment and can be divided into two subclasses: the yellow – orange betaxanthins and the red – violet betacyanin. These pigments can be found mainly in Latin America, but also in some parts of Asia, Africa, Australia and in the Mediterranean area. In this work an overview related with the status of research about betalains extracted from Opuntia spp and the enforces made to evaluate their positive incidence in the human body is provided. Several studies enhance their anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. They also exhibit antimicrobial and antidiabetic effect. Taking into account these…properties, betalains seem to be a promising natural alternative as a colorant to replace the synthetic ones in the food additive industry. In addition, the use of Opuntia spp fruits as possible colorant sources in the Food Industry, may contribute positively to the sustainable development in semi-arid regions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical and sensitive period of life, a fundamental stage of development, and special attention must be paid to the quality of food. Healthy eating habits at adolescence can be an important factor for healthy eating habits later in life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and knowledge of fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents in Ain Temouchent (Western Algeria). METHODS: A study was conducted from February 1 to April 30, 2022. 103 adolescents responded to the questionnaire. The participants were boys (n = 48) and girls (n = 55) aged 12 to 18 years from…two educational levels (middle school and high school). RESULTS: Adolescents surveyed had a mean BMI equal to 23.2 (kg/m2 ), considered overweight. The frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption it does not differ between girls and boys (p > 0.05). The consumption of fruits and vegetables was below recommended levels. The evaluation showed that most adolescents do not have a good knowledge of food composition and are not interested in fruits and vegetables in their daily diet (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study showed that adolescents consume few fruits and vegetables, and they have little knowledge of the value of fruits and vegetables in their daily diet.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices toward added sugar intake among Cypriot university students. METHODS: This cross- sectional study was conducted among 200 students enrolled in public and private universities in Cyprus. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward added sugar consumption was evaluated using self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Only 8.5% of the students were able to accurately report the recommended values of sugar consumption. Most of the participants (76%) were aware of the health consequences of excessive sugar consumption, whereas 63.5% were aware of the existence of hidden sources of sugar and 88% of students stated…that they read the nutrition declaration of the products that they are considering consuming. About 67% of students stated that they are actively trying to reduce their sugar consumption and the majority consume sugary beverages less than 1 day per week. CONCLUSIONS: Results support that although students read the nutrition facts label there is a limited awareness of sugar intake recommendations. Tailored-made strategies targeting students in order to improve sugar-related knowledge could be warranted.
Keywords: Added sugar, Cyprus, knowledge, students
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The risk of developing an eating disorder can increase with obesity and body weight gain in adolescents. Eating disorders can cause serious physical and psychological problems. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of eating disorders in adolescents and examine the relationship between obesity and weight gain. METHODS: The sample was selected from a population of high school students between the ages of 14–19. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was used to determine the frequency of eating disorders. The relationship between anthropometric measurements and the EDE-Q was evaluated.…RESULTS: A total of 387 students, 67.4% of the sample female, were included in the study. When the students are evaluated according to BMI classification, 74.67% of the students are in the normal category, 16.53% are overweight, and 5.42% are obese. While female students received a total score of 1.36±1.45 on the scale, male students received a score of 0.85±0.97 (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between body weight and BMI, EDE-Q’s total score, and sub-dimension scores (p < 0.05). Additionally, the regression analysis revealed that the total score on the scale was significantly associated with body weight and BMI. EDE-Q’s total score increased by 1 unit, there was an increase of approximately 3.01 kg in body weight and 1.19 kg/m2 in BMI. CONCLUSION: In adolescents, the risk of developing an eating disorder can increase with obesity and body weight gain. Early diagnosis and treatment of eating disorders can help prevent long-term health problems.
Keywords: Adolescent, weight gain, obesity, eating disorder
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sweetened beverages (SBs) have been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), possibly because they contain sugar, caffeine, artificial colors, sweeteners, and preservatives. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to show how SBs affect ADHD and to investigate the potential contribution of the various ingredients in SBs to this effect. METHODS: The study consisted of 239 children, ranging from 6 to 10 years old, divided into two groups: 111 with ADHD, diagnosed by a doctor in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, and 128 in the control group, who were selected from schools. The…modified Food Consumption Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) with 17 sweetened beverages was used in the assessment of beverage consumption. The consumption record was taken together with the brands of the beverages and the label information of the products was examined and the amounts of sugar, caffeine, artificial colors, sweeteners and preservatives in the beverages were calculated. Maximum food additives consumed (mg/day/kg b.w.) values of food additives were calculated according to body weight. To establish the relationship between ADHD and beverage consumption, logistic regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Children with ADHD consumed more fruit juice, carbonated beverages, flavored beverages, sugary milk, sugar, caffeine, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate compared to their healthy peers (p < 0.05). The logistic regression analysis revealed that drinking fruit juice, sugary milk, carbonated beverages, and flavored drinks was significantly associated with ADHD (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The consumption of sweetened beverages containing sugar, caffeine, and food additives could potentially effect children’s behavior.