Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 13, issue 3
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: This review aims to investigate the physiological mechanisms that underlie the hydro-electrolyte balance of the human body and the most appropriate hydration modalities for individuals involved in physical and sports activities, with a focus on ultra-endurance events. The role of effective hydration in achieving optimal sports performance is also investigated. An adequate pre-hydration is essential to perform physical and sporting activity in a condition of eu-hydration and to mantain physiologic levels of plasma electrolyte. To achieve these goals, athletes need to consume adequate drinks together with consuming meals and fluids, in order to provide an adequate absorption of the ingested…fluids and the expulsion of those in excess through diuresis. Therefore, there are important differences between individuals in terms of sweating rates, the amount of electrolytes loss and the specific request of the discipline practiced and the sporting event to pursue.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is recommended throughout interventions aiming at enhancing healthy dietary habits (DH) and increasing physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating DH and PA, in a sample of Italian children/adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated DH and PA by means of a previously validated questionnaire in 178 children/adolescents (88F/90M, 11.8±2.6 years): 49 normal weight (NW), 76 overweight (OW) and 53 with obesity (OB). Abdominal obesity was defined as Waist to Height Ratio (WHeR) >0.5. RESULTS: DH did not differ in NW subjects compared to OW and OB but higher…PA score (p = 0.001) was observed in NW than OW and OB. No association was found between DH and WHeR, unlike PA. Four clusters of subjects were identified that could be defined by DH and PA; only one cluster, defined by PA, showed a significantly lower WHeR within subjects playing sports at least 3–4 hours/week. Moreover, subjects belonging to this cluster did not skip the main meals, eat a varied diet and drank milk at breakfast. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample PA performed at least 3–4 hours/week is inversely associated with abdominal fat deposition and is expected to positively impact health, protecting from abdominal obesity.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Probiotic/synbiotic has the important role of in altering intestinal bacteria, reducing inflammation and improvement of intestinal diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of synbiotic supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes, hs-CRP, quality of life, dietary intake and weight changes in rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS: In this study, 46 rectal cancer patients were recruited. Patients were allocated to the synbiotic (n = 23) group or placebo groups (n = 23) receiving 2 synbiotic or placebo capsules for six weeks. Anthropometric measurements, quality of life, dietary intakes, and serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-9,…and hs-CRP were compared before and after intervention with the use of statistical tests. RESULTS: The mean energy, carbohydrate, and protein intake of patients increased in the synbiotic group, while in the placebo group, post intervention, significant reduction was noticed in these parameters (P < 0.05). Synbiotic supplementation caused improvement in global health status, symptom scale scores and scores of functional scale. At the end of intervention, the elevation in hs-CRP, MMP-2, and MMP-9 levels in the placebo group was approximately two and four times higher than the synbiotic group respectively. CONCLUSION: According to our results, synbiotic supplementation may be helpful in cancer patients undergoing CRT. However, further studies must consider synbiotic as a new complementary treatment.
Keywords: Rectal cancer, synbiotic supplementation, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, dietary intake, quality of life
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition is important to maintain health, growth, and development of adolescent athlete performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of nutritional intervention (NI) promoting Mediterranean diet (MD), on food consumption, and adherence to MD, in scholar adolescent athletes. METHODS: Eighty athletes (Females/Males, 39/41) aged 15±1 years participated to NI. MD Adherence was assessed, using Kidmed index, at baseline, and at 6 months. Food intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall at baseline, and at four NI times. RESULTS: At baseline, 61% of athletes had poor MD adherence, and after NI, this value decreased to…10%. At 6 months of NI, 73% of males vs 46% of females had good MD adherence (≥8). Energy intake represented 2369 Kcal/d, at baseline, and was less than recommended value. After NI, significant increase was observed in energy intake (p = 0.001). Mean fiber intake (19 and 21 g/d in females and males, respectively) was less than adequate intake (26/38 g/d), but increased after NI (p = 0.000). Enhancement was noted in total, and complex carbohydrates, and total proteins, and values were increased with time (p = 0.000, p = 0.000, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Nutritional intervention, based on Mediterranean diet, improves total energy, and macronutrients intake, and increases MD adherence scores in adolescents athletes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The prevention of malnutrition is an important factor in the survival of critically ill patients with enteral nutrition. The present study aims to assess the nutritional status and its association with some blood-related markers in critically ill patients with enteral nutrition during hospitalization in the intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: Totally, 110 patients participated in this study from the time of admission to discharge at five ICUs. The patients’ nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation and Albumin, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (HCT),…Ferritin, and Feas biochemical indices and anthropometric parameters. RESULTS: Malnutrition prevalence increased significantly on the day of discharge (83.6%) compared to the day of admission (41.8%), according to SGA (P < 0.001). Hb, HCT, serum Fe decreased and ferritin, also TIBC were increased during hospitalization in ICU. The malnutrition risk predictors based on the logistic regression were low levels of Hb (OR = 0.6), HCT (OR = 0.9), Fe (OR = 0.9), Albumin (OR = 0.3) and High Ferritin level (OR = 1.006) on the admission day. Anemia of inflammation (AI) was observed during ICU stay. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that malnutrition is an increasing phenomenon in the ICU patients and the delay in patient’s enteral feeding had a direct influence in the prevalence of malnutrition on discharge day.
Keywords: Malnutrition, nutritional status, intensive care units, anemia of inflammation
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial study was to assess the effects of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) compared with general nutritional advice (NA) on nutritional status in esophageal cancer (EC) patients during Chemoradiation (CRT). METHOD: The sample includes one hundred newly diagnosed patients with EC. The MNT group received individualized nutritional therapy. The NA group received general nutritional advice at the beginning of the participation. Patient-Generated- Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), anthropometric indices, body composition, dietary intake, laboratory tests, and nutrition-related complications were assessed. RESULTS: Forty-nine cases were in the MNT group. The MNT group…had significantly more favorable energy (26.4±14.1 vs. 18.2±11.2 kcal/kgw.day) and protein (1±0.6 vs. 0.7±0.4 g/kgw.day) intake than the NA group at the final evaluation. The PG-SGA score diminished but not significantly in both groups (11±6 vs. 12±6). As compared to the NA group, patients in the MNT group experienced more frequently no weight loss (21% vs. 11%) or mild weight loss (40% vs 35%) during the treatment. Meanwhile, moderate weight loss was more frequently observed in the NA group (26% vs. 44%). In the MNT group, those with severe weight loss had not proper adherence to the nutritional protocol. Mid-upper arm circumference, body composition, laboratory tests, physical performance, and nutrition-related complications were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: As compared to general NA, MNT improved energy and macronutrients intake in patients with EC undergoing CRT which resulted in less severe weight loss and potentially better nutritional status.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Inappropriate feeding practices, coupled with high rates of infectious diseases, are the proximate causes of malnutrition during the first two years of life. Around 10 million under-five children died annually of which over one-third were due to inappropriate complementary feeding. OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with timely initiation of complementary feeding among children aged 6 to 12 months in public health care facilities of Addis Ababa Ethiopia. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was conducted. Data was collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Binary and multivariable logistic regressions analyses were performed. Variables with p -value…≤0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The proportion of timely initiation of complementary feeding was 65.2% (95% CI = 60.8, 69.5). Being married [AOR = 2.622, 95% CI: 1.182–5.817], belongs to 18–24 years age at first marriage [AOR = 1.671, 95% CI: 1.019–2.742], being grade 9 and above [AOR = 1.910, 95% CI: 1.401–2.258], average income > 1500 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 2.138, 95% CI: 1.762–2.347], and postnatal care follow up [AOR = 1.641, 95% CI:1.435–3.224] were significantly associated with complementary feeding. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the magnitude of timely initiation complementary feeding was higher as compared to the country level figure. Implementing nutrition strategy which scales-up mother’s living standards improve complementary feedings practices.