Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 12, issue 4
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: Berries are a rich source of bioactive compounds with potential beneficial effects on human health. In the last 5 years, several in vitro , in vivo and clinical studies, summarized in this concise review, have confirmed their preventive effect on the onset of serious diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases, reaffirming the importance of their implementation in the diet.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Considering that a gluten-free diet (GFD) should be followed for life, investigating its effect on health is very important. In the present study, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed the studies that evaluated the changes in body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile during a gluten-free diet (GFD) in celiac patients. METHOD: The databases of Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched until June 2018 to select studies investigate the changes in BMI and lipid profile in celiac patients. The standard mean difference (SMD) was calculated. For the heterogeneity analysis, the I-square statistic test…was used. RESULTS: Twenty-one articles were included in our systematic review and 16 studies were selected for meta-analysis. The results of meta-analysis showed the statistically significant increase in BMI [SMD: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.17, 0.35 p: <0.001] and HDL-C (HDL-C) [SMD: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.009, 0.18, p = 0.001] during GFD. However, the effect of GFD on total cholesterol [SMD: 0.17; 95% CI:–0.66, 0.41, p = 0.16], LDL-C [SMD: –0.21; 95% CI:–0.54, 0.10, p = 0.16], and triglyceride [SMD: 0.02; 95% CI:–0.22, 0.25, p = 0.87] was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The results of the present meta-analysis showed the positive effect of GFD on BMI and HDL-C. However, more cohort studies in this topic are needed with considering the level of mucosal healing and the effect of confounding factors such as physical activity level, smoking and dietary intakes on the association between GFD diet and cardiovascular risk factors.
Keywords: Celiac disease, gluten-free diet, body mass index, lipid profile
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Patients with the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are at the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the dietary intake and dietary diversity score (DDS) in terms of the risk of MetS in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: This case- control study was conducted on 96 patients with NAFLD and 114 healthy subjects who were referred to radiology clinics in Kermanshah, Iran. Dietary intake and body composition were assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the bioelectrical impedance analysis respectively. Dietary diversity score…(DDS) was calculated using data from this FFQ. MetS was determined using the international diabetes federation (IDF) criteria. RESULTS: 55.2% of NAFLD patients had MetS. Patients with NAFLD consumed significantly less fruits, grains, and dairy products than healthy subjects (p < 0.001, p = 0.027 and 0.022). Higher intake of red meat in healthy subjects was associated with the increased risk of MetS (OR: 2.16; CI 95% :1.11–4.19). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate a high prevalence of MetS in NAFLD patients. Higher intake of red meat can increase the risk of MetS.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The therapeutic benefits of plants depend on several factors such as the drying method used. So, to deepen and better explore the traditional use of plants, a comparative study between dry methods will be necessary. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work, which was to study the composition of bioactive compounds and biological activities of Ficus carica leaves dried in oven and traditionally dried in the shade. METHODS: The bioactive compounds (total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins) were measured by colorimetric methods. The antioxidant activity was evaluated on the chemical model based on DPPH• and…ABTS•+ technique as well as on cells and enzyme involved in inflammation: neutrophils and myeloperoxidase (MPO), respectively. RESULTS: The extract of the leaves dried in the shade has significantly high amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids and tannins, respectively. In the same trend, the extract of the leaves dried in the shade showed a significantly higher effect to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ radicals. Furthermore, the extract of the leaves dried in the oven decreased significantly the activity of MPO and the extracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils. CONCLUSION: This study showed that shade drying method better preserves the bioactive compounds, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Ficus carica leaves.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Diet quality indices are an approach to estimate entire diet quality. This study aims to determine the association between Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) as a diet quality indicator and anthropometric indices in children and adolescents. METHODS: This is a nationwide cross-sectional study. In the present study, 5000 students randomly were selected for filling the food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between MAR with anthropometric measures – Z score. RESULTS: Data of 4323 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years old were available for the present study. In total, 52.5%…of them were boys. The mean (standard deviation) ages were 11.2 (3.2) and 11.5 (3.1) years for boys and girls, respectively. Result of multivariate regression analysis showed that MAR was positively associated with waist circumference- Z score and BMI- Z score (β = 0.399, P < 0.001; β = 0.291, P = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We found a positive association between waist circumference-Z score and BMI-Z score with MAR.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ramadan fasting involves refraining from food and liquids from the sunrise till sunset for one month yearly; affecting the sleep pattern and duration, physical activity, and meal number and composition leading to biochemical and physiological changes in the body. Irisin, adiponectin, and leptin induce multiple metabolic effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the Ramadan fasting on serum levels of irisin, adiponectin, and leptin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of sixty healthy students (43 females and 17 males) were recruited, 20.9 years mean age, who were fasting for Ramadan…were included in this study. Anthropometry, blood samples and physical activity were determined. Lipid profiles were determined using an enzymatic colorimetric method, and serum levels of irisin, adiponectin, and leptin were measured using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. All measurements were measured before Ramadan and in the fourth week of Ramadan. RESULTS: Subjects experienced a significant increase in LDL was determined during Ramadan vs before Ramadan (142.8 vs. 158.1 mg/dl p = 0.03) along with a significant reduction in leptin, adiponectin and irisin concentration during Ramadan compared to before Ramadan (11.6 vs. 8.6; p = 0.000; 4.42 vs. 3.58; p = 0.022; 33.6 vs. 16.3; p = 0.003). A significant positive correlation was found between physical activity and irisin concentration before Ramadan (r = 0.338, p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Ramadan fasting has significant effects on irisin, adiponectin, and leptin levels. Their levels were significantly reduced during Ramadan while LDL level was increased. Irisin level has a significant correlation with the physical activity of the participants.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Obesity and high body fat are related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in all ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine optimal cutoff points for the Fat Mass Index (FMI), Body Fat Percentage (BF%), and Visceral Fat Area (VFA) in the prediction of MetS. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 10063 individuals aged from 35–65 years, recruited in Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort. The anthropometric indices were measured using an appropriate validated methods and body composition was measured using Bio-Impedance Analyzer (Inbody 770, Inbody Co, Seoul, Korea). The receiver operating characteristic…curve analysis was used to compare the predictive validity and determine optimal cutoff values. RESULTS: The optimal cutoff points for FMI, BF% and VFA were 7.2 kg/m2 , 26.7 and 91.6 cm2 respectively in men for the prediction of MetS, but they were 11.3 kg/m2 , 39.8 and 139.1cm2 respectively in women. Cutoff points were lower in rural populations than urban populations. In men and women with FMIs of higher than the optimal cutoff point, the risk of MetS was respectively 4.01 and 1.85 times higher than those with FMIs of lower than the cutoff point. In men and women with BF% of higher than the optimal cutoff point, the risk was respectively 3.62 and 1.70 times higher than those with BF% of lower than the cutoff point. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the FMI, BF%, and VFA indices were appropriate predictors of risk of MetS. The diagnostic power of the indicators was better in men and villagers.
Keywords: Metabolic syndrome, cutoff point, fat mass index, visceral fat area
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Management of cellular metabolism and blood glucose levels are significant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and oxidative diseases. Consequently, steroid and peptide hormone-based drugs such as methylprednisolone and insulin have been the most effective and safe methods of treatment. OBJECTIVE: Our study investigated the digestive enzymes and oxidative species inhibitory potentials of seven derived biologically important steroids. METHODS: Syntheses of the steroidal inhibitors (SIs) were accomplished by functional group transformations. Characterisation of SIs was achieved by spectroscopic techniques; followed by in-vitro enzyme and oxidative suppression studies. RESULTS: NMR data revealed the…presence of a steroid backbone, azomethine, carbonyl, and oxymethine peaks while the vibrational bands were further confirmed by the FTIR. The enzyme suppression activities of the SIs were influenced by the presence of histidine residue and free proton groups. However, the antioxidant activities were solely dependent on the free proton groups on the steroid backbone or the number of the histidine side chain. SIs [3 , 4 , and 6] exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the enzyme activities compared to SIs [1 , 2 , 5 , and 7] , while a potent antioxidant activity was reported by SI  . CONCLUSIONS: Generally, SIs with hydroxyl and α -amino acid functionalities have a strong affinity for the enzyme active site than the substrate; hence, the hydrolysis of the α -1,4-glycosidic bonds of saccharide was hindered. In vivo administration of SIs [3 , 4 , and 6] should take into cognizance the suppression effect at doses ≤939.49 μg/mL as well as the potential to induce abnormal bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the colon at high concentration.