Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism - Volume 12, issue 3
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Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism publishes original scientific papers on metabolism, including diabesity and eating disorders; nutrition (epidemiological, basic, clinical and artificial); dietary and nutritional practices and management and their impact on health from prevention to treatment.
The journal hosts the proceedings of relevant congresses and presents shorter notices focused on the original character of the Mediterranean nutritional civilisation. In addition, this journal is intended as a platform for scientific debate and knowledge-sharing among students and clinical practitioners, and between them and the broader scientific community, and finally as a tool for promoting and enhancing scientific cooperation.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and anemia are mainly in coexistence with each other and are potent risk factors of delayed growth and development in children. Moreover, both malnutrition and anemia could trigger the disease and prolonged the hospitalization period. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study is to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and anemia in patients admitted to Tabriz pediatric hospital in 2017 and also to determine their demographic and social determinants. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 342 children aged 6 months to 13 years including 220 boys and 122 girls admitted to pediatric hospital in Tabriz-Iran…in 2017 were recruited. Demographic and anthropometric variables were obtained from medical records. Height for age, weight for age and weight for height Z-scores (HAZ, WAZ, WHZ) were used to evaluate the nutritional status. Routine laboratory records of children in hospital were used to determination of anemia. Anemia was defined based on the WHO criteria as hemoglobin concentrations less than 11 and 11.5 g/dL for children under and over 5 years old respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of severe and moderate wasting among girls were more prevalent than boys (P < 0.05). The moderate stunting was also more prevalent among girls (P = 0.029). Total prevalence of anemia was 31.87%; while this prevalence among children under and over 5 years of old was 31.25% and 33.33% respectively. In children under 5 years, mean age, weight, height and WHZ in anemic children were significantly lower than non-anemic children (P < 0.05). In children over 5 years of age, mean age and weight were also marginally lower among anemic compared with non-anemic children. No statistically significant difference between prevalence of anemia in children under or over 5 years old were identified. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of malnutrition among girls compared with boys reveals the need for further attention and strategy planning for nutrition education and intervention among vulnerable low-income families.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is a high rate of nutritional risk factors and non-communicable diseases among children in the Middle Eastern countries. As children who are attending nurseries or school are expected to consume a substantial part of their daily intake there, it’s important that the food provided in educational settings is nutritious which can be achieved with the support from nutrition guidelines. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to report on current food and nutrition guidelines for children in nurseries or schools within the Middle Eastern countries. METHODS: An electronic search was done on governmental webpages,…PubMed, Google Scholar, and WHO using specified keywords related to children, guidelines, nutrition and education. The search was conducted for relevant documents in both English and Arabic, without a set timeframe. RESULTS: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia had national dietary guidelines for the public, mainly without age considerations. In educational settings, a majority of the countries had health and food safety guidelines. United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia had somewhat comprehensive nutrient or food-based guidelines for school settings, whereas most other countries had lists of permitted/non-permitted food. No countries had issued nutrient or food-based guidelines specific for nurseries. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight a shortcoming in guidelines on providing healthy and nutritious food in nurseries and schools in many Middle Eastern countries. As educational settings can serve as excellent health promotion arenas, guidelines could have the potential to support healthier eating habits among children, and thus contribute to improved health in the population.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Eating habits, such as breakfast, snaking, and out-of-home meals, have been reported to potentially influence health status of general population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the food and nutrient intake and level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet of a sample of Italian adults according to their eating habits. METHODS: Data derived from 1,952 participants from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle study was used for the study. RESULTS: Individuals having breakfast (any time) had higher intakes of nuts and dairy products compared to those who had not,…but also lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Those having snacks (any time) had higher energy intake, lower intake of meat and olive oil, while higher intake of protein, total fats, nuts and lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet, compared to those subjects who do not consume snacks. Those who reported eating meals out of home (any time) had lower intake fiber, cereals, fruit and olive oil, while they had higher intakes sodium, nuts, processed meat and beer compared to the others; no relation with adherence to Mediterranean diet was detected though. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy eating habits might be positively associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet, however, further studies are needed to confirm this association.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A balanced nutrition is vital for healthy growth and development. Recently increasing attention is paid globally for adolescent nutritional profile and eating patterns. The main objectives of this study are to define the prevalence of obesity, overweight, thinness, and anemia and to describe the distribution of nutritional problems among the participants of the study in Jazan City, southwest Saudi Arabia. METHODOLOGY: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted to characterize the basic health behavior and nutritional status among adolescents. A total of 502 school-going adolescents were recruited for this study, within the age group 12–19 years from intermediate…and high schools in Jazan City. RESULT: The total prevalence of obesity was 13.9%, 16.4%, and 10.6% for males and females, respectively. Adolescents with normal weight accounted for almost 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. The overall prevalence of anemia was 44.16%. The prevalence was higher in male (50.0%) than in female (40.4%) adolescents. Regarding the importance of breakfast, 66.3% of the males and 52.6% of the females think that breakfast is a necessary meal, with a significant difference between the males and the females. Significant differences were reported for 16 food items. For the food items liver, goat’s meat, eggs, milk, yogurt, white rice, mango, tangerine, fruit juices, honey, sausage, carrots, and coffee, the boys were more consumers than girls. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of overweight and anemia corresponds to the other findings in the region. Eating behaviors vary particularly with regard to breakfast, the most important meal for adolescents aged 12–19 years. Any intervention to overcome these problems could be achieved by nutrition promotion and individual approach among adolescents themselves for behavior change at school and community levels.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein separation and analysis is critical for the classification of different atherogenic dyslipidemias. Several methods are used in clinical practice to assess lipoprotein profile. Yet, those may give different diagnostic outcomes, as no standardization scale is currently available; thus, no effective comparison is possible. Combining results from different techniques may grant a more detailed lipid profile analysis, providing a better overview of dyslipidemias. METHODS: We analysed the lipoprotein profile of a male adult patient and his relatives, using three different techniques for lipoprotein subfractions analysis: cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE), polyacrylamide tube gel electrophoresis (PGGE, Lipoprint) and size-exclusion…chromatography (SEC). RESULTS: Diagnosis based on plasma lipid analysis resulted in hypertriglyceridemia (Triglycerides, TG, between 250 and 900 mg/dL), while CAE showed an extra band, compatible with an electrophoretic pattern of broad beta disease (Dysebtalipoproteinemia, phenotype III by Fredrickson Classification). In addition, Lipoprint revealed the presence of small dense LDL, and SEC, confirming the presence of sdLDL, and noticing the presence of beta-VLDL remnants. CONCLUSIONS: The combined information coming from the three methods granted us access to more detailed and distinguished information, allowing a more specific diagnosis and a better evaluation of a patient’s cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: Lipoproteins, LDL (low density lipoproteins), HDL (high density lipoproteins), cholesterol, triglycerides, dyslipidemias, acetate cellulose electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel tube electrophoresis, size-exclusion chromatography
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypercholesterolemia triggered by high-fat and high-fructose diets increases Reactive Oxygen Species production, causing oxidative stress and increasing the expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in endothelial cells as a form of inflammatory response. High-fiber diet could restrict lipolysis in adipose tissue, decreasing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines while indirectly decreasing the expression of ICAM-1. METHODS: The research analyzed beneficial effects of high-fiber diet divided into five groups: normal (N); hypercholesterolemia (HC); HC + 1.04 g fiber/rat/day (HFD1); HC + 2.07 g fiber/rat/day (HFD2) and HC + 3.11 g fiber/rat/day (HFD3) for 6-weeks intervention on the level and expression of ICAM-1 in rats induced by…high-fat and high-fructose diets. RESULTS: The administration of a high-fiber diet reduced the levels of ICAM-1 plasma hypercholesterolemia rats (HFD1, HFD2 and HFD3) when compared with the hypercholesterolemia group (p < 0.001) without fiber administration. In addition, the administration of a high-fiber diet also decreased ICAM-1 gene expression in rat adipose tissue when compared with the hypercholesterolemia group (p < 0.05). The decreased plasma levels of ICAM-1 were not correlated with the reduced ICAM-1 gene expression in rat adipose tissue after administration of a high-fiber diet. CONCLUSIONS: The high-fiber diet administration was able to decrease expression and level of ICAM-1 in hypercholesterolemia rats induced by high-fat and high-fructose diets.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Physical activity protects against chronic diseases. Preclinical studies suggest that circulating levels of the myokine β-amino-isobutyric acid (BAIBA) may prevent obesity and improve cardiometabolic health. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether serum BAIBA is associated with physical activity, markers of cardiometabolic risk, and gender differences among young individuals. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 80 university students. Anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBS), C-reactive protein, cortisol and physical activity (PA) were measured and analyzed against serum BAIBA levels. RESULTS: Average BAIBA levels were 1.57±0.61 μM. Males had significantly larger waist (86.0±9.6 cm)…and neck circumferences (38.6±2.5 cm), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (124.9±11.7 mmHg and 77.9±9.9 mmHg, respectively), FBS (84.6±7.5 mg/dL), cortisol (594.8±158.9 nmol/L) and PA levels than females. They also had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (46.9±7.3 mg/dL). BAIBA concentrations in males and females were not significantly different. No significant association was found between BAIBA concentrations and nutritional, metabolic and functional parameters, except for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in males (r = –0.35; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In healthy, young individuals, serum BAIBA levels were not related to nutritional status, metabolic status, and physical activity, but were inversely related to DBP in males only.
Abstract: Background: The UCP2 gene variation has been associated with the increased risk for obesity and lower response to an energy-restricted diet. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effect of intermittent fasting diet (IFD) and low-calorie diet with exercise (LCD-ex) based on UCP2 gene variations. Methods: Subjects were adult men and women (n = 125) with body mass index between 25–40 kg/m2 . During IFD, subjects were abstained from eating and drinking for 13 hours. During LCD-ex, subjects received dietary counseling for low-calorie diet and group exercise program. Anthropometric changes were compared after 4 weeks. The -866 G/A (rs659366)…UCP2 gene variation was analyzed and subjects were separated into 2 groups: GG and AA+GA. Results: In GG genotype, IFD was associated with a higher weight reduction compared to LCD-ex (–1.7±0.2 vs. –0.7±0.3 kg, p = 0.016). In AA+GA genotypes, there were no differences in weight loss between IFD and LCD-ex (–1.7±0.3 vs. –1.7±0.3 kg, p = 0.967). No differences in energy intake between genotypes (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: This study shows that GG genotype of -866 G/A UCP2 was associated with a better response towards IFD compared to LCD-ex.