Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 29, issue 5
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of virtual touch imaging and quantification (VTIQ) shear wave elastography (SWE) in diagnosis of supraspinatus tendon tear. METHODS: Eighty patients with unilateral supraspinatus tendon tear underwent shoulder arthroscopy were prospective studied. Tendinopathy, partial-thickness tear or full-thickness tear of supraspinatus tendon were diagnosed according 2D ultrasound examination. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonic diagnosis of supraspinatus tendon tear were calculated by arthroscopy as the gold standard. VTIQ was applied to measure the shear-wave velocity (SWV) of both normal and affected supraspinatus tendon. The differences of SWV in three types of supraspinatus tendon tear and…receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 80 patients, there were 20 tendinopathy, 31 partial tears and 29 full-thickness tears diagnosed by shoulder arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 2D ultrasound in diagnosis of tendinopathy, partial tear and full-thickness tear groups were 78%, 90%and 83%; 71%, 86%and 73%; 86%, 88%and 88%, respectively. SWV of 80 supraspinatus tendon tears was 4.59±1.00 m/s, which was lower than that of normal supraspinatus tendon (4.59±1.00 m/s vs. 6.68±1.05 m/s, P < 0.01). SWV of supraspinatus tendon in tendinopathy, partial tear and full-thickness tear groups respectively were 5.66±0.97, 4.66±1.00, and 3.78±0.55 m/s, all lower than that of the contralateral normal supraspinatus tendon (all P < 0.05). In addition, the analysis of variance and pairwise comparison showed that SWV of supraspinatus tendon among three different degree of injury was statistically significant (all P < 0.001). The cutoff thresholds of SWV was 4.83 m/s to identify tendinopathy tear from partial tear and was 4.08 m/s to identify full-thickness tear from partial-thickness tear. CONCLUSION: VTIQ SWE with SWV might identify degree of supraspinatus tendon tear and improve the value of ultrasonography, which should be further evaluated in large multicenter studies.
Abstract: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the brain is an effective clinical treatment for psychiatric disorders. Noninvasive neuroimaging during rTMS allows visualization of cortical brain activations and responses, and it is a potential tool for investigating the neurophysiological response occurring actively during stimulation. In this paper, we present a fast diffuse optical tomography (DOT) approach for three-dimensional brain mapping of hemodynamics during rTMS. Eight healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. These subjects received 10 Hz stimulation with 80%and 100%of resting motor threshold (rMT), respectively, for 4 seconds for each stimulation. Significant hemodynamic activation was observed in all cases with…the strongest response when 100%rMT stimulation was applied. This work demonstrates that fast DOT has the potential to become a powerful tool for noninvasive three-dimensional imaging of the brain during rTMS.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate three-dimensional soft tissue changes of lips and related jaw changes in patients with skeletal class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT). METHOD: This study included 46 CBCT scans of patients with aforementioned character before (T1) and 6–12 months after orthognathic surgery (T2). Subjects were divided into 2 groups according to two types of orthognathic surgery namely, the one-jaw surgery group who underwent bilateral sagittal splint ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) and the two-jaw surgery group who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and BSSRO. Mimics 19.0 software are used for model reconstruction, landmark location…and three-dimensional cephalometric analysis. Descriptive statistics and correlation analyses are used to investigate jaw hard tissue and lip soft tissue changes. RESULTS: In one-jaw group, the mandible shows changes in contour and position (p < 0.05), and the surgery causes changes of lip structure on the deviated side. While in two-jaw group, jaws only show changes in spatial position, and surgery changes contour of bilateral lips and nasolabial angle (p < 0.05). At the same time, lip symmetry increases significantly in both groups postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Orthognathic surgery can improve lip aesthetics in patients with skeletal class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry. However, changes induced by two surgical approaches are different. Surgeons should have a clear acquaintance with this difference to deal with different situations.
Keywords: CBCT, 3D cephalometric analyses, class III malocclusion, facial asymmetry, lip profile
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate skin dose differences between TPS (treatment planning system) calculations and TLD (thermo-luminescent dosimeters) measurements along with the dosimetric effect of applicator misplacement for patients diagnosed with gynecological (GYN) cancers undergoing brachytherapy. METHODS: The skin doses were measured using TLDs attached in different locations on patients’ skin in pelvic regions (anterior, left, and right) for 20 patients, as well as on a phantom. In addition, the applicator surface dose was calculated with TLDs attached to the applicator. The measured doses were compared with TPS calculations to find TPS accuracy. For the phantom, different applicator shifts were…applied to find the effect of applicator misplacement on the surface dose. RESULTS: The mean absolute dose differences between the TPS and TLDs results for anterior, left, and right points were 3.14±1.03, 6.25±1.88, and 6.20±1.97 %, respectively. The mean difference on the applicator surface was obtained 1.92±0.46 %. Applicator misplacements of 0.5, 2, and 4 cm (average of three locations) resulted in 9, 36, and 61%, dose errors respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The surface/skin differences between the calculations and measurements are higher in the left and right regions, which relate to the higher uncertainty of TPS dose calculation in these regions. Furthermore, applicator misplacements can result in high skin dose variations, therefore it can be an appropriate quality assurance method for future research.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The corpus callosum in the midsagittal plane plays a crucial role in the early diagnosis of diseases. When the anisotropy of the diffusion tensor in the midsagittal plane is calculated, the anisotropy of corpus callosum is close to that of the fornix, which leads to blurred boundary of the segmentation region. OBJECTIVE: To apply a fuzzy clustering algorithm combined with new spatial information to achieve accurate segmentation of the corpus callosum in the midsagittal plane in diffusion tensor images. METHODS: In this algorithm, a fixed region of interest is selected from the midsagittal plane, and…the anisotropic filtering algorithm based on tensor is implemented by replacing the gradient direction of the structural tensor with an eigenvector, thus filtering the diffusion tensor of region of interest. Then, the iterative clustering center based on K-means clustering is used as the initial clustering center of tensor fuzzy clustering algorithm. Taking filtered diffusion tensor as input data and different metrics as similarity measures, the neighborhood diffusion tensor voxel calculation method of Log Euclidean framework is introduced in the membership function calculation, and tensor fuzzy clustering algorithm is proposed. In this study, MGH35 data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) are tested and the variance, accuracy and specificity of the experimental results are discussed. RESULTS: Segmentation results of three groups of subjects in MGH35 data are reported. The average segmentation accuracy is 97.34%, and the average specificity is 98.43%. CONCLUSIONS: When segmenting the corpus callosum of diffusion tensor imaging, our method cannot only effective denoise images, but also achieve high accuracy and specificity.