Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 28, issue 3
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Diagnostic quality of computed tomography (CT) images depends on numerous factors. Recently, two different modalities were introduced for coronary CT angiography (CCTA). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the performance of 16 cm wide-coverage detector CT (WDCT) using the snapshot freeze technique with a new-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) with 66 ms temporal resolution for CCTA. METHODS: Total 101 patients with suspected coronary heart disease were enrolled. Of these, 50 and 51 patients were examined on WDCT and DSCT, respectively. CT values, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio were measured. The image processing efficiency was recorded, followed…by statistical comparison of diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients (98.02%) had satisfactory diagnostic image quality. DSCT was significantly better than WDCT in terms of quantitative image quality, image processing efficiency, and qualitative analysis (P < 0.05). However, radiation dose was significantly lower on WDCT (P < 0.05) as compared to DSCT. CONCLUSIONS: Image processing efficiency and image quality of CCTA was higher on DSCT compared to WDCT due to the limitation of maximal tube current of WDCT.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Segmentation of magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the left ventricle (LV) plays a key role in quantifying the volumetric functions of the heart, such as the area, volume, and ejection fraction. Traditionally, LV segmentation is performed manually by experienced experts, which is both time-consuming and prone to subjective bias. This study aims to develop a novel capsule-based automated segmentation method to automatically segment the LV from images obtained by cardiac MRI. METHOD: The technique applied for segmentation uses Fourier analysis and the circular Hough transform (CHT) to indicate the approximate location of the LV and a network…capsule to precisely segment the LV. The neurons of the capsule network output a vector and preserve much of the information about the input by replacing the largest pooling layer with convolutional strides and dynamic routing. Finally, the segmentation result is postprocessed by threshold segmentation and morphological processing to increase the accuracy of LV segmentation. RESULTS: We fully exploit the capsule network to achieve the segmentation goal and combine LV detection and capsule concepts to complete LV segmentation. In the experiments, the tested methods achieved LV Dice scores of 0.922±0.05 end-diastolic (ED) and 0.898±0.11 end-systolic (ES) on the ACDC 2017 data set. The experimental results confirm that the algorithm can effectively perform LV segmentation from a cardiac magnetic resonance image. To verify the performance of the proposed method, visual and quantitative comparisons are also performed, which show that the proposed method exhibits improved segmentation accuracy compared with the traditional method. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation metrics of medical image segmentation indicate that the proposed method in combination with postprocessing and feature detection effectively improves segmentation accuracy for cardiac MRI. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use a deep learning model based on capsule networks to systematically evaluate end-to-end LV segmentation.
Keywords: Deep learning, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI), capsule network, LV segmentation
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and mammography for plasma cell mastitis. METHODS: The ultrasonographic and mammographic images of 111 women with histopathologically confirmed plasma cell mastitis were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnostic accuracy of the two imaging methods was compared. RESULTS: Ultrasonography identified 91 out of 111 (82.0%) patients with plasma cell mastitis, while the other twenty (18.0%) patients were misdiagnosed. Mammography identified 83 (74.8%) out of 111 patients with plasma cell mastitis. Nineteen (17.1%) patients were misdiagnosed. There was no significant difference between the diagnostic accuracy of using two imaging tests (P = 0.127).…Mammography clouds identified 11 out of 20 patients who were not diagnosed by ultrasonography. Meanwhile, 19 of the 28 cases misdiagnosed with mammography were correctly identified by ultrasonography. Overall, 91.9% (102/111) of the patients were identified by the combination of ultrasonography and mammography, which yielded statistically significant higher accuracy than using each single test only (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In diagnosis of plasma cell mastitis, high-frequency ultrasonography and mammography should be combined to improve the diagnostic accuracy.
Keywords: Mastitis, plasma cell, Doppler ultrasound, X-ray, breast
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To elevate safety and efficacy of en bloc transurethral resection with 980 nm laser as treatment for primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: Total 84 cases were enrolled in this study. Among them, 36 and 48 cases underwent treatment using the 980 nm laser and the traditional TUR-BT procedure, respectively. The peri-operative characteristics (tumor size, tumor multiplicity, tumor grade, etc.) and intra-operative complications (obturator nerve reflex, bladder perforation, bladder irrigation, etc.) were recorded and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There are no significant difference in baseline characteristics between laser and TUR-Bt treatment groups. Operation time also…has no significant difference in two groups. Obturator nerve reflex and bladder perforation were noted in 6 patients and in 3 patients during TUR-Bt group, respectively. No obturator nerve reflex and bladder perforation were observed in the laser group. The patients who need bladder irrigation was lower in laser group than in TUR-Bt group. There were no significant differences in catheterization time and hospitalization time between two groups. No significant difference in the overall recurrence rate were observed among the two groups during the follow-up periods. CONCLUSION: En bloc transurethral resection using 980 nm laser is an effective and safe treatment option for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Compared to the traditional TUR-Bt procedure, the procedure using 980 nm laser has fewer perioperative complications and similar oncological results.
Keywords: 980 nm laser, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, en Bloc
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effectiveness of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection with and without needle release of the A1 pulley in treating trigger finger. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with trigger finger were enrolled in this retrospective study. Among them, 30 patients were treated with ultrasound-guided needle release of the A1 pulley with corticosteroid injection (group A) and 30 patients were treated with single ultrasound-guided corticosteroids injection (group B). The following parameters were evaluated including clinical parameters (pain degree, function of joint, finger tendon function, postoperative satisfaction), and ultrasound parameter (thickness of A1 pulley). RESULTS: The…postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) and Quinnell scores in two groups were significantly lower than that before operation (p < 0.05). The postoperative Quinnell score of group A was significantly lower than that in group B (p < 0.05). The TAM results showed that the postoperative overall excellent and good rate of group A was significantly higher than that in group B (p < 0.05). The postoperative survey showed that more than 80% patients reported satisfaction in the two groups. The ultrasound imaging results showed that the postoperative thickness of A1 pulley in two groups were thinner than that before operation (p < 0.05). There were no adverse effects and complications in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Both approaches had treatment benefit in trigger finger. Ultrasound-guided needle release of the A1 pulley with corticosteroid injection had better treatment benefits than single ultrasound-guided corticosteroids injection in improving finger tendon function and joint function.