Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 27, issue 1
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Impact Factor 2018: 1.381
Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Improved visualization of lung cancer-associated vessels is vital. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of 3-D quantitative CT in lung cancer-associated pulmonary vessel assessment. METHODS: Vascular CT changes were assessed visually and using FACT-Digital lung TM software (n = 162 patients, 178 controls). The total number of pulmonary vessels (TNV) and mean lumen area of pulmonary vessels (MAV) vertical to cross-sections of fifth/sixth-generation bronchioles were measured. RESULTS: Visual investigation revealed fewer ipsilateral pulmonary vascular abnormalities in lung cancer (151/162) than did quantitative CT (162/162), and required more time (3.2±1.5 vs. 2.5±1.3 min) (P < 0.05). CT measurements…revealed that the TNV vertical to the fifth-generation bronchial cross-section of the ipsilateral, contralateral, and control groups was 14.58±4.75, 9.58±3.74, and 10.22±4.07 and the MAV in these groups was 99.70±26.20, 58.76±29.29, and 57.76±18.32, respectively. The TNV vertical to the sixth-generation bronchial cross-section of the ipsilateral, contralateral, and control groups was 16.64±5.14, 11.59±4.06, and 11.75±4.16 and the MAV was 110.22±31.47, 67.62±30.41, and 60.24±16.18, respectively. The TNV and MAV in ipsilateral lung cancer tissues exceeded those in the contralateral side and control group tissues (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Automated 3-D quantitative CT could successfully characterize pulmonary vessels and their lung cancer-associated changes.
Keywords: Lung cancer, CT, total number of vessels, mean lumen area of vessels, quantitative measurement
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose calculation accuracy in the Prowess Panther treatment planning system (TPS) using the collapsed cone convolution (CCC) algorithm. METHODS: The BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) package was used to predict the dose distribution of photon beams produced by the Oncor® linear accelerator (linac). The MC model of an 18 MV photon beam was verified by measurement using a p -type diode dosimeter. Percent depth dose (PDD) and dose profiles were used for comparison based on three field sizes: 5×5, 10×10, and 20×20cm2 . The accuracy of the CCC dosimetry was also evaluated using…a plan composed of a simple parallel-opposed field (11×16cm2 ) in a lung phantom comprised of four tissue simulating media namely, lung, soft tissue, bone and spinal cord. The CCC dose calculation accuracy was evaluated by MC simulation and measurements according to the dose difference and 3D gamma analysis. Gamma analysis was carried out through comparison of the Monte Carlo simulation and the TPS calculated dose. RESULTS: Compared to the dosimetric results measured by the Farmer chamber, the CCC algorithm underestimated dose in the planning target volume (PTV), right lung and lung-tissue interface regions by about –0.11%, –1.6 %, and –2.9%, respectively. Moreover, the CCC algorithm underestimated the dose at the PTV, right lung and lung-tissue interface regions in the order of –0.34%, –0.4% and –3.5%, respectively, when compared to the MC simulation. Gamma analysis results showed that the passing rates within the PTV and heterogeneous region were above 59% and 76%. For the right lung and spinal cord, the passing rates were above 80% for all gamma criteria. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the CCC algorithm has potential to calculate dose with sufficient accuracy for 3D conformal radiotherapy within the thorax where a significant amount of tissue heterogeneity exists.
Keywords: Monte Carlo, treatment planning, collapsed cone convolution, 3D conformal
Abstract: Prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a subtype of prostate sarcoma which is rarely reported in adults and usually huge in size. Although there is no consensus on the standard therapy to prostatic RMS, complete resection with negative margin is identified as the best way for maximum survival time. However, to remove a much enlarged prostate completely from a RMS patient is still a very difficult task for a skilled urologist so far. As three-dimension (3D) technology becomes more widely used in medicine, surgeons have the opportunity to challenge previously impossible surgery. In this paper, we reported a 36-year-old male patient with…a 9.6*5.3*7.6 cm prostatic RMS. With the aid of 3D reconstructed video and printing model, the giant tumor was entirely removed without surgery complications and adjacent organs injury. The patient was alive and had no recurrence after 18 months from surgery. This case revealed that 3D reconstruction technology could help in the preoperative assessment and gave benefits to both patients and surgeons.