Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 26, issue 6
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Impact Factor 2020: 1.342
Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: High dose efficiency of photon counting detector based spectral CT (PCD-SCT) and its value in some clinical diagnosis have been well acknowledged. However, it has not been widely adopted in practical use for medical diagnosis and security inspection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence on PCD-SCT from multiple aspects including the number of energy channels, k-edge materials, energy thresholding, basis functions in spectral information decomposition, and the combined optimal setting for these parameters and configurations. METHODS: Basis material decomposition after spatial reconstruction is applied for PCD-SCT. A “one-step” synthesis method, merging decomposition with synthesis, is proposed…to obtain virtual monochromatic images. An I-RMSE is computed using the bias part of I-RMSE to describe the difference of a synthesized signal from ground truth and the standard deviation part of I-RMSE to express the noise level. In addition, virtual monochromatic images commonly used in the medical area are also synthesized. Both numerical simulations and practical experiments are conducted for validation. RESULTS: Results indicated that the I-RMSE for matters significantly reduced with an increased number of energy channels compared with dual-energy channel. The maximum reduction is 6% for triple-, 18% for quadruple-and 24% for quintuple-energy, respectively. However, the improvement is not linear, and also slows down after the number of energy channels reaches a certain number. Contrast agents of high concentration can introduce up to 50% error to surrounding matters. Moreover, different energy partitions influence the total error, which demonstrates the necessity of energy threshold optimization. Last, the optimal basis-material combination varies according to targeted imaging matters and the interested monochromatic energies. CONCLUSIONS: Gain from more energy channels could be significant with the increase of energy channel number. Introduction of contrast agents in scanned objects will increase overall error in spectral CT imaging. Energy thresholding optimization is beneficial for information recovery. Moreover, the choice of basis materials could also be important to obtain low noise results. With these studies of the effect from various configurations for PCD-SCT, one may optimize the configuration of PCD-SCT accordingly.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of percutaneous transvenous retrieval of intravascular fractured catheter and to evaluate the possible reasons and final results in cancer patients. METHODS: A dataset of 19 patients was used. Percutaneous transvenous retrieval of intravascular fractured catheter was performed in each patients. Clinical data was retrospectively analyzed with respect to the efficacy, safety and outcome, and chest radiography was performed to verify that no catheter fragments were left. RESULTS: Two cases had peripherally inserted central catheter and 17 had subcutaneous implanted port catheter. The catheter fragments were…located in the brachiocephalic vein-superior vena cava (n = 1), superior vena cava (n = 1), superior and inferior vena cava (n = 1), superior vena cava-right atrium (n = 2), brachiocephalic vein-superior vena cava-right atrium (n = 1), superior vena cava-right atrium-right ventricle (n = 6), brachiocephalic vein-superior vena cava-right atrium and right ventricle (n = 1) and pulmonary artery (n = 6), respectively. All of these catheter fragments were retrieved successfully. No complications such as bleeding and thrombosis were found. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous transvenous retrieval is a safe, minimally invasive and relatively simple procedure for the patients with fractured catheter and should be recommended as the first choice.