Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 26, issue 4
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Impact Factor 2020: 1.342
Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Automated pulmonary embolism (PE) segmentation is frequently used as a preprocessing step in the quantitative analysis of pulmonary embolism. Objective of this study is to analyze the potential limitation in automated PE segmentation using clinical cases. METHODS: A database of 304 computer tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) examinations was collected and confirmed to be PE. After processing using an automated scheme, two radiologists classified these cases into four groups of A, B, C and D, which represent 4 different segmentation results namely, (1) entire pulmonary artery identified without motivation artifacts, (2) entire pulmonary artery identified with motivation artifacts,…(3) part of the pulmonary artery identified, and (4) none of the pulmonary artery identified. Then, the possible failed reasons in PE segmentation were analyzed and determined based on the image characterization of the diseases and the applied CTPA scanning protocols. RESULTS: In the study, 143 (47.0%., 30 (9.9%., 110 (36.2%. and 21 (6.9%. examinations were classified into groups A, B, C and D, respectively. Group C and D included the cases with failed segmentation. Fifteen failure reasons, including intrapulmonary abnormalities, extra-pulmonary abnormalities, diffuse pulmonary diseases, enlarged heart, absolute occluded vessels, embolism attached to artery wall, delayed scan time, skewed location, low scan dose, obvious artifact of superior vena cava, previous chest surgery, congenital deformities of the chest, incorrect positioning, missed images and other unknown reasons, were determined with corresponding case percentages ranging from 0.3%.o 9.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Automated segmentation failures were caused by specific lung diseases, anatomy varieties, improper scan time, improper scan dose, manual errors or other unknown reasons. Realization of those limitations is crucial for developing robust automated schemes to handle these issues in a single pass when a large number of CTPA examinations need to be analyzed.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To explore the characteristics of breast cancer and breast fibroadenoma using low-dose computed tomography perfusion imaging (LDCTPI) including specific perfusion parameter values, and seek the potential clinical applications in cancer prognosis assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients including 30 diagnosed with breast cancer and 20 with breast fibroadenoma, as well as 15 control subjects with normal breasts were studied prospectively using LDCTPI examinations. The acquired volumetric imaging data were used for calculation, mapping and analysis by using a body tumor perfusion protocol in the CT perfusion software to measure 4 parameters: blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV),…mean transit time (MTT), and the permeability surface (PS) area product. Statistical data analysis was then performed to distinguish the difference of the 4 parameter values among normal control, breast cancer and breast fibroadenoma cases. RESULTS: The mean perfusion values of 15 normal controls were as follows: BF, 20.03±4.08 mL/100 g/min; BV, 4.53±0.95 mL/100 g; MTT, 5.90±0.82 s; and PS, 9.25±1.18 mL/100 g/min. The mean perfusion values of 30 cancer patients were as follows: BF, 56.67±6.59 mL/100 g/min; BV, 5.82±0.68 mL/100 g; MTT, 6.01±0.82 s; and PS, 24.95±5.05 mL/100 g/min. The mean perfusion values of 20 patients with breast fibroadenoma were as follows: BF, 46.24±6.65 mL/100 g/min; BV, 5.07±0.73 mL/100 g; MTT, 7.51±0.62 s; and PS, 16.73±6.48 mL/100 g/min. Comparing the 3 groups, differences were all statistically significant for BF, BV, MTT and PS values (p < 0.05, respectively); The BF, BV, PS values were highest in group of cancer patients, while the MTT value was highest in group of patients diagnosed with breast fibroadenoma. CONCLUSION: Breast CT perfusion imaging is a promising functional imaging technology in breast cancer diagnosis, which can provide valuable quantitative imaging markers to assist evaluation of breast tumors.
Keywords: Breast cancer, breast fibroadenoma, low dose, low-dose CT perfusion imaging, quantitative imaging markers, evaluation of tumor characteristics.