Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 25, issue 1
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: The interior problem, i.e. reconstruction from local truncated projections in computed tomography (CT), is common in practical applications. However, its solution is non-unique in a general unconstrained setting. To solve the interior problem uniquely and stably, in recent years both the prior knowledge- and compressive sensing (CS)-based methods have been developed. Those theoretically exact solutions for the interior problem are called interior tomography. Along this direction, we propose here a new CS-based method for the interior problem based on the curvelet transform. A curvelet is localized in both radial and angular directions in the frequency domain. A two-dimensional (2D) image…can be represented in a curvelet frame. We employ the curvelet transform coefficients to regularize the interior problem and obtain a curvelet frame based regularization method (CFRM) for interior tomography. The curvelet coefficients of the reconstructed image are split into two sets according to their visibility from the interior data, and different regularization parameters are used for these two sets. We also presents the results of numerical experiments, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Abstract: The synchrotron radiation emitted by runaway electrons in fusion plasma provides information regarding the particle momentum and pitch-angles of the runaway electron population through the strong dependence of the synchrotron spectrum on these parameters. Information about the runaway density and its spatial distribution, as well as the time evolution of the above quantities, can also be deduced. On the other hand, control of radial electric filed and suggestion of the methods to reduce plasma turbulence are important issues in confinement process and particle transport in the tokamaks. In this work, the effects of positive limiter biasing on electrical fluctuations and…hard x-ray have been investigated. For this purpose, the radial and poloidal electric fields have been measured using the Langmuir probe, and hard x-ray has been measured using the Scintillator detector. The biased electric voltage was +250 V. Also, electrical fluctuations are analyzed using wavelet transform technique in the presence of positive biasing and without it. The results show that time-frequency activity of radial electric field multiplies in the presence of positive biasing while poloidal electric filed frequency intensity decreases.
Keywords: Tokamak, electrical fluctuations, hard x-ray
Abstract: The characteristics of spectra obtained by monochromatization of a broadband spectrum using the effect of X-ray anomalous transmission (Bormann effect) have been experimentally studied. Optimization of the crystal thickness allows one to obtain the spectral band with a controlled width of ΔE/E = 1–5 10–3 and with a contrast of more than 250 with a peak reflectivity not less than 4% in the transmitted Bormann beam. It was found that due to the wave field compression, the width of the transmitted Bormann beam decreased three times as the thickness of the crystal increased. The value of parallel displacement of the transmitted…Bormann beam relative to the primary one, which depends on crystal thickness, was measured. This value was shown to be sufficient for the beams to be separated by the slit. Monitoring the transmitted Bormann beam by the shape of 2d-curves of the diffracted Laue-beam enables the precise control of characteristics of the primary source with a complex shape of angle and energy distributions of photons.
Abstract: We review the relatively immature field of automated image analysis for X-ray cargo imagery. There is increasing demand for automated analysis methods that can assist in the inspection and selection of containers, due to the ever-growing volumes of traded cargo and the increasing concerns that customs- and security-related threats are being smuggled across borders by organised crime and terrorist networks. We split the field into the classical pipeline of image preprocessing and image understanding. Preprocessing includes: image manipulation; quality improvement; Threat Image Projection (TIP); and material discrimination and segmentation. Image understanding includes: Automated Threat Detection (ATD); and Automated Contents Verification…(ACV). We identify several gaps in the literature that need to be addressed and propose ideas for future research. Where the current literature is sparse we borrow from the single-view, multi-view, and CT X-ray baggage domains, which have some characteristics in common with X-ray cargo.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Large-scale transmission radiography scanners are used to image vehicles and cargo containers. Acquired images are inspected for threats by a human operator or a computer algorithm. To make accurate detections, it is important that image values are precise. However, due to the scale (∼5 m tall) of such systems, they can be mechanically unstable, causing the imaging array to wobble during a scan. This leads to an effective loss of precision in the captured image. OBJECTIVE: We consider the measurement of wobble and amelioration of the consequent loss of image precision. METHODS: Following our previous…work, we use Beam Position Detectors (BPDs) to measure the cross-sectional profile of the X-ray beam, allowing for estimation, and thus correction, of wobble. We propose: (i) a model of image formation with a wobbling detector array; (ii) a method of wobble correction derived from this model; (iii) methods for calibrating sensor sensitivities and relative offsets; (iv) a Random Regression Forest based method for instantaneous estimation of detector wobble; and (v) using these estimates to apply corrections to captured images of difficult scenes. RESULTS: We show that these methods are able to correct for 87% of image error due wobble, and when applied to difficult images, a significant visible improvement in the intensity-windowed image quality is observed. CONCLUSIONS: The method improves the precision of wobble affected images, which should help improve detection of threats and the identification of different materials in the image.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in imaging quality and radiation dose in CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) by using fast-kV switching dual energy CT imaging and 3D Smart mA modulation at different body mass indices (BMIs) and at different noise index (NI) values with an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm. METHODS: Four hundred patients who underwent CTPA were equally divided into two groups: A (18.5 kg/m2 ≦ BMI <24.9 kg/m2 ) and B (24.9 kg/m2 ≦ BMI ≦ 4.9 kg/m2 ). The groups were randomly subdivided into four subgroups (n = 50): A1-A4 and B1-B4. The patients in subgroups A1…and B1 underwent fast-kV switching dual energy CT imaging. The other patients underwent 3D Smart mA modulation with the ASIR algorithm at NI values 26, 36, and 46 for A2/B2, A3/B3, and A4/B4, respectively. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of all images were calculated after CTPA. Images were then subjectively evaluated using a 5-point scale. The volume CT dose index and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded and their means calculated. The DLP was converted to the effective dose (ED). RESULTS: In group A, the SNR, CNR, and subjective image scores showed no statistical differences (P > 0.05). The ED in subgroup A4 was 67.12% and 31.53% lower than that in A1 and A2, respectively. In group B, the variables showed no significant differences between the subgroups B3, B1, and B2 (P > 0.05). The ED in subgroup B3 was 50.12% and 35.95% lower than that in B1 and B2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Setting different NI values according to BMIs and applying the ASIR algorithm can more effectively reduce the radiation dose in CTPA than in fast-kV switching dual energy CT, while maintaining image quality. Imaging may be performed at NI = 46 in patients with lower BMI (group A) and at NI = 36 in patients with higher BMI (group B).
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects both adults and children, likely mediated by the deficits of various brain regions. The association between structural alterations in the brain and OSA syndrome have been reported in adult patients, but the corresponding evidence for OSA children is still limited. OBJECTIVE: The proposed study aimed to investigate the structural alterations in the brain of children with OSA, with focus on basal ganglia structures. METHODS: We recruited 25 OSA children (aged 10.3±1.5 years) and 30 healthy children (aged 10.1±1.8 years) with T1-weighted brain MRI and performed automatic segmentation of their…brains. The shape alterations of the basal ganglia structures for OSA syndrome was determined by comparison of the OSA group and control group with surface-based shape analysis. RESULTS: Differences in the morphometry of the left thalamus and the left pallidum were found between the OSA group and control group. Compared to the control group, the OSA group presented significant atrophy in the ventral posterior nucleus and the medial dorsal nucleus of the left thalamus, while regional dilation was found in both the internal and external segments of the left pallidum. CONCLUSION: These findings identified the association between the structural deficits of the thalamus and OSA syndrome in children, which was consistent with the existing findings in OSA adults. In addition, the present study provided new insights to the distinctive pattern of structural changes of the pallidum in pediatric OSA when compared to adult OSA.
Abstract: BACKGOUND: Labisia pumila (LP) is a popular herb used by women over the past few decades. This herb has shown potentials as an alternative agent for treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It was observed in previous studies that supplementation to ovariectomized rats were associated with increased bone antioxidative enzymes and reduced lipid peroxidation activity. It had also improved bone formation markers in ovariectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of giving different forms of LP extracts on the trabecular bone microarchitecture of ovariectomised rats. METHODS: Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into…sham-operated (Sham), ovariectomized control (OVX), ovariectomized and given estrogen at 64.5 μg/kg (ERT), ovariectomized and given LP aqueous extract (LPaq ), LP methanol extract (LPmet ) and LP ethanol extract (LPet ) at 100 mg/kg, respectively. Treatments were given daily via oral gavages for nine weeks. Following sacrifice, femora were dissected out for bone microarchitectural analysis using an in vitro micro-CT, which provided three dimensional informations on bone microarchitecture. RESULTS: LPaq was the most effective extract found to improve the bone microarchitectural paramaters which comprised ofBone volume fraction (BV/TV), Trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), Trabecular number (Tb.N), Connective density (Conn.dens), Structure model index (SMI) and Degree of anisotropy (DA). CONCLUSION: LPaq was effective in protecting the bone of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model against microarchitectural deterioration.
Keywords: Labisia pumila, osteoporosis, bone microarchitecture, micro-CT, imaging
Abstract: Singular value decomposition (SVD)-based 2D image reconstruction methods are developed and evaluated for a broad class of inverse problems for which there are no analytical solutions. The proposed methods are fast and accurate for reconstructing images in a non-iterative fashion. The multi-resolution strategy is adopted to reduce the size of the system matrix to reconstruct large images using limited memory capacity. A modified high-contrast Shepp-Logan phantom, a low-contrast FORBILD head phantom, and a physical phantom are employed to evaluate the proposed methods with different system configurations. The results show that the SVD methods can accurately reconstruct images from standard scan…and interior scan projections and that they outperform other benchmark methods. The general SVD method outperforms the other SVD methods. The truncated SVD and Tikhonov regularized SVD methods accurately reconstruct a region-of-interest (ROI) from an internal scan with a known sub-region inside the ROI. Furthermore, the SVD methods are much faster and more flexible than the benchmark algorithms, especially in the ROI reconstructions in our experiments.
Keywords: Computed tomography, singular value decomposition, a region of interest, interior tomography, Tikhonov regularization
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low-concentration contrast medium on spectral computed tomography (CT) image quality for portal venography CT. METHODS: 150 patients with suspected portal diseases were divided into three groups and had spectral CT examination using a GE Discovery CT 750 HD scanner. The patients in three groups were injected with different concentrations of iodine (350 mgI/mL, 315 mgI/mL and 280 mgI/mL) at an injection rate of 4.0–5.0 mL/s with 1.2 mL/kg (body weight) of contrast medium, respectively. During the portal vein imaging phase, 0.625 mm-slice-thickness monochromatic images and optimal monochromatic images were obtained. Optimal keV mono-energy was achieved using the optimal…contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the portal vein relative to the erector spinae muscle. Volume rendering and maximum intensity projection methods were applied to generate portal venography. The CT values and standard deviations were measured at the portal vein, the erector spinae muscle, and the abdomen fat, respectively. These values were used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); while CNR was calculated using CT values of the portal vein and erector spinae muscle. The overall imaging quality was evaluated on a five-point scale by two radiologists with at least five years’ experience. Comparisons among the three groups were performed using One-Way ANOVA test. RESULTS: Monochromatic images at 50–53 keV demonstrated the best CNR for both the portal vein and erector spinae muscle. SNR and CNR of images with different contrast medium concentrations were similar (P > 0.05). The five-point scores were also similar (P > 0.05) for the three groups. The total iodine intake at 280 mgI/mL was 25.4% lower than that at 350 mgI/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Spectral CT with monochromatic images at 50–53 keV allows significant reduction in iodine load while improving portal vein signal intensity and maintaining image quality.