Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology - Volume 24, issue 2
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Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology is an international journal designed for the diverse community (biomedical, industrial and academic) of users and developers of novel x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the journal is to provide clear and full coverage of new developments and applications in the field.
Areas such as x-ray microlithography, x-ray astronomy and medical x-ray imaging as well as new technologies arising from fields traditionally considered unrelated to x rays (semiconductor processing, accelerator technology, ionizing and non-ionizing medical diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, etc.) present opportunities for research that can meet new challenges as they arise.
Abstract: Discrete tomography refers to a class of reconstruction methods adapted to discrete-valued images. Many different approaches have been investigated to address the binary case, when a two-phase object is considered. This reconstruction problem is very important in medical or material applications where it is crucial to reduce the number of projections. In this paper, we address the problem of binary image reconstruction for X-ray CT imaging from a small number of projections. We propose a TV (Total Variation) regularization approach and compare the results obtained with or without an additional box convex constraint. The schemes are applied to a simple…disk image and to more complex bone cross-sections for various noise levels. The minimization of the regularization functional is performed with the state-of-the-art ADMM (Alternate Direction Minimization Method) algorithm. The methods perform equally well on a simple disk image. The additional box convex constraints improves the reconstruction results for complex structures with fine details.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reconstructs planar slices of the breast based on two-dimensional angular projections. Early studies and clinical trials show that DBT is an improvement over full field digital mammography (FFDM) because it provides the radiologist with better image quality and more information. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a simulation system to model the performance of a slot-scanning FFDM and DBT system. METHODS: A tissue-equivalent three dimensional (3D) breast phantom was constructed, validated for slot-scanning digital mammography and used in simulating digital breast tomosynthesis. The simulation system was validated by comparing images acquired with a…slot-scanning mammography machine with simulated phantom images, using the edge-test method and image quality metrics modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Different two-dimensional (2D) projections of the 3D phantom were simulated and the phantom was reconstructed using filtered backprojection. RESULTS: Image quality metrics showed equivalence between simulated and real images. CONCLUSIONS: The simulation tool is suitable for slot-scanning FFDM and DBT and may be used for the design and comparison of mammography systems.
Abstract: X-ray imaging applications in medical and material sciences are frequently limited by the number of tomographic projections collected. The inversion of the limited projection data is an ill-posed problem and needs regularization. Traditional spatial regularization is not well adapted to the dynamic nature of time-lapse tomography since it discards the redundancy of the temporal information. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm with a nonlocal regularization term to account for time-evolving datasets. The aim of the proposed nonlocal penalty is to collect the maximum relevant information in the spatial and temporal domains. With the proposed sparsity seeking…approach in the temporal space, the computational complexity of the classical nonlocal regularizer is substantially reduced (at least by one order of magnitude). The presented reconstruction method can be directly applied to various big data 4D (x , y , z +time) tomographic experiments in many fields. We apply the proposed technique to modelled data and to real dynamic X-ray microtomography (XMT) data of high resolution. Compared to the classical spatio-temporal nonlocal regularization approach, the proposed method delivers reconstructed images of improved resolution and higher contrast while remaining significantly less computationally demanding.
Keywords: Iterative reconstruction, spatio-temporal regularization, time-lapse, nonlocal graphs, p-Laplacian, material science, X-ray microtomography, big data
Abstract: Inspired by the Compressed Sensing (CS) theory, it has been proved that the interior problem of computed tomography (CT) can be accurately and stably solved if a region-of-interest (ROI) is piecewise constant or polynomial, resulting in the CS-based interior tomography. The key is to minimize the total variation (TV) of the ROI under the constraint of the truncated projections. Coincidentally, the Split-Bregman (SB) method has attracted a major attention to solve the TV minimization problem for CT image reconstruction. In this paper, we apply the SB approach to reconstruct an ROI for the CS-based interior tomography assuming a piecewise constant…imaging model. Furthermore, the ordered subsets (OS) technique is used to accelerate the convergence of SB algorithm, leading to a new OS-SB algorithm for interior tomography. The conventional OS simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART) and soft-threshold filtering (STF) based OS-SART are also implemented as references to evaluate the performance of the proposed OS-SB algorithm for interior tomography. Both numerical simulations and clinical applications are performed and the results confirm the advantages of the proposed OS-SB method.
Keywords: Ordered subset Split-Bregman, interior tomography, compressive sensing, total variation minimization, piecewise constant imaging model
Abstract: For X-ray computed tomography (CT), geometric calibration and rigid patient motion compensation are inter-related issues for optimization of image reconstruction quality. Non-calibrated system geometry and patient movement during a CT scan will result in streak-like, blurring and other artifacts in reconstructed images. In this paper, we propose a locally linear embedding based calibration approach to address this challenge under a rigid 2D object assumption and a more general way than what has been reported before. In this method, projections are linearly represented by up-sampled neighbors via locally linear embedding, and CT system parameters are iteratively estimated from projection data themselves.…Numerical and experimental studies show that images reconstructed with calibrated parameters are in excellent agreement with the counterparts reconstructed with the true parameters.
Keywords: Geometric calibration, rigid patient motion, locally linear embedding (LLE)
Abstract: The goal for this study was to investigate if proton MRS (1H-MRS) and out-of-phase and in-phase MRI can quantify the fat deposition in bone marrow within the lumbar vertebra that can be used to distinguish well between osteoporosis patients and healthy control subjects. Sixty-eight subjects participated in this study. The diagnostic results from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry served as the gold standard, which was able to separate the subjects into osteoporosis (38 subjects) and non-osteoporosis group (30 subjects). Then the 68 subjects were further scanned by 1H-MRS and in-phase and out-of-phase MRI and the findings from the imaging methods were also…compared and analyzed. It was found that the measured signal intensity ratio (SIR), lipid-water ratio (LWR) and fat fraction (FF) in L2 vertebra from the two imaging methods were able to identify the fat deposition in bone marrow, which could be used to diagnose osteoporosis. Diagnostic accuracy for osteoporosis based on identified SIR, LRW and FF was analyzed by using ROC curves. Our findings suggested that statistically significant differences were identified between osteoporosis patients and healthy subjects. The sensitivity and specificity equal to 78.9% and 75.9% for SIR, 79.2% and 66.7% for LRW, 71.4% and 72.4% for FF, can be achieved when fat deposition-related parameters in bone marrow from the lumbar vertebra are used as classifiers. Our results showed that fat deposition-related parameters including fat content in bone marrow and water content in the lumbar vertebra are clearly different between the osteoporosis and non-osteoporosis group, suggesting that both 1H-MRS and in-phase and out-of-phase MRI can be used for diagnosing osteoporosis and monitoring its progression.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In computed tomography (CT), the image contrast is given by the difference in X-ray attenuation in the various tissues of the patient and contrast media are used to enhance image contrast in anatomic regions characterized by similar attenuation coefficients. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present work is to enlarge the range of applicability of the method previously introduced for organ dosimetry in contrast-enhanced CT, by studying the effects of X-ray beam quality on the parameters of the model. Furthermore, an experimental method for the evaluation of the attenuation properties of iodinated solutions is proposed. METHODS: Monte…Carlo simulations of anthropomorphic phantoms were carried out to determine a bi-parametrical (a and b ) analytical relationship between iodine concentration and dose increase in organs of interest as a function of the tube kilo-voltage peak potential (kVp) and filtration. Experimental measurements of increments in Hounsfield Units (HU) were conducted in several CT scanners, at all the kVp available, in order to determine the parameter γ which relates the HU increment with the iodine mass fraction. A cylindrical phantom that can be filled with iodine solutions provided with an axial housing for a pencil ionization chamber was designed and assembled in order to measure the attenuation properties of iodine solutions under irradiation of a CT scanner and to obtain a further validation of Monte Carlo simulations. RESULTS: The simulation-derived parameters of the model, a and b , are only slightly dependent upon the tube kilo-voltage peak potential and filtration, while such scanner-dependent features influence mainly the experimentally-derived γ parameter. Relative dose variations registered by the ionization chamber inside the iodine-filled cylindrical phantom decrease when the X-ray mean energy increases, and reaches about 50% for 10 mg/ml of iodine. CONCLUSIONS: The dosimetric method for contrast-enhanced CT can be applied to all CT scanners by adopting average simulative parameters and by carrying out a simple measurement with a series of iodine contrast solutions. The novel experimental methodology introduced can provide a direct measurement of iodine attenuation properties.
Abstract: Infantile spasm (IS) syndrome is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy that occurs in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes in IS patients. Resting-state fMRI was performed on 11 patients with IS, along with 35 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Group comparisons between the two groups demonstrate that the pattern of regional synchronization synchronization in IS patients is changed. Decreased ReHo values were found in default mode network, bilateral motor-related areas and left occipital gyrus of the patient group. Increased ReHo was found in regions of cingulum, cerebellum, supplementary motor area and brain deep nucleus,…such as hippocampus, caudate, thalamus and insula. The significant differences might indicate that epileptic action have some injurious effects on the motor, executive and cognitive related regions. In addition, ReHo values of left precuneus and right superior frontal gyrus were associated with the epilepsy duration in the IS group. The correlation results indicate that the involvement of these regions may be related to the seizure generation. Our results suggest that IS may have an injurious effect on the brain activation. The findings may shed new light on the understanding the neural mechanism of IS epilepsy.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe the cerebral activation effects of acupuncturing the Zusanli (ST36) plusYanglingquan (GB34) points in young healthy volunteers based on Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) indices. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled, including 4 males and 6 females between the ages 20 and 34 years with a median age of 23 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (GE Signa HDxt 3.0T) was performed in four groups: Before acupuncture (Control Group), after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36 Group), after acupuncture at Yanglingquan (GB34 Group) and after acupuncture at both Zusanli and Yanglingquan (Compatibility Group). Differences in the brain ReHo indices…of the 4 groups were analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) and ReHo data processing methods. The significantly different brain regions were obtained using a false discovery rate correction (FDR-Corrected). RESULTS: The ReHo indices revealed that the main significant effect was in the Compatibility Group. Compared with the resting state of the Control Group, the ReHo values of the Compatibility Group increased in the right middle frontal gyrus (BA8, 9), left superior temporal areas (BA22), ventral anterior cingulate area (BA24) and right inferior parietal lobe (BA40); in contrast, the ReHo values decreased in the left thalamus, right insular cortex (BA13), left inferior frontal lobe (BA9) and right dorsal anterior cingulate area (BA32). Our analysis showed that the Compatibility Group had higher ReHo values than the left inferior parietal lobule (BA40) and right frontal cortex (BA6) of the ST36 Group and the posterior lobe of the right cerebellum, dorsal anterior cingulate (BA32), left and right middle frontal gyrus (BA46, BA9), left precuneus (BA7), right inferior parietal love (BA40) of the GB34 Group. CONCLUSION: The results of our neuroimaging study suggest that the combination of acupoints could more widely activate areas of the brain compared to a single acupoint. Additionally, the combination of acupoints can activate some new brain areas and generate new curative effects.