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Authors: Michette, A. G.
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: Microscopic imaging using x rays has been made feasible by recent developments in techniques for manufacturing x-ray optical components and in synchrotron radiation sources. However, it is clear that x-ray microscopes cannot become widely available instruments if they have to rely on synchrotron radiation sources. Laser-generated plasmas can give intense bursts of x rays, and in this paper the requirements for two types of imaging, contact microradiography and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, are discussed, with particular reference to the use of small commercially available lasers. Such lasers could be of use, particularly for scanning x-ray microscopes, but it is unlikely …they will be capable of completely replacing synchrotrons as sources for x-ray microscopy. Show more
Citation: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-16, 1990
Article Type: Research Article
Abstract: This report describes a synthesis of more than 10 years of this program's development and application of multilayer analyzers for absolute Bragg spectrometry in the low-energy x-ray region of 50–1000 eV. Multilayers, denned here as systems of periodic layered structures parallel to the analyzer surface, have been applied principally in the diagnostics and application of the new, intense sources of synchrotron and high-temperature plasma x radiation. Detailed absolute reflectivity characterizations are presented for selected examples of these multilayers which have been semiempirically determined for mica, potassium acid phthalate, and the fabricated Langmuir-Blodgett and sputtered multilayer analyzers with d-spacings in the …10–200 Å range. Design requirements for absolute spectrometry are established. Efficient analytical multilayer reflectivity models are derived and parameterized (based upon a modification of the Darwin-Prins model for the low-energy x-ray region), including, for the sputtered multilayers, parameters for defining interface structure. The dependence of the reflectivity characteristics, high-order Bragg diffraction suppression, and overall efficiency upon the model parameters is analyzed. A special spectrograph and procedure for the absolute measurement of the relevant reflectivity characteristics are described. Detailed measurements and semiempirical characterizations are presented. Programs for small laboratory computers have been developed that allow rapid and flexible spectral analysis, transforming measured spectra to absolute Spectra. Show more
Citation: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 17-80, 1990
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