Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation will provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of information about the major areas that constitute vocational rehabilitation.
Periodically, there will be topics that are directed either to specific themes such as long-term care or different disability groups such as those with psychiatric impairment. Often a guest editor who is an expert in the given area will provide leadership on a specific topic issue. However, all articles received directly or submitted for a special issue are welcome for peer review. The emphasis will be on publishing rehabilitation articles that have immediate application for helping rehabilitation counselors, psychologists and other professionals in providing direct services to people with disabilities.
Original research articles, review articles, program descriptions, and case studies will be considered for publication. Ideas for special topical issues are welcomed as well.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: People with disabilities are one of the most marginalized groups in society, and having a disability significantly increases the likelihood of unemployment or underemployment. The reluctance to hire individuals with disabilities is significantly influenced by the longstanding, negative stereotypes of people with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To better understand employers’ negative attitudes toward individuals with disabilities, assessment tools must properly capture factors contributing to this stigma. METHODS: The Employers ’ Stigmatizing Attitudes toward People with Disabilities Scale (ESATPD) was validated in the current study. RESULTS: Results of the exploratory factor analysis indicate a strong,…unidimensional structure of the scale accounting for 47.14% of the total variance with a sample. The single ESATPD factor was labeled employment stigma. In addition, higher levels of employers’ stigma were related to negative attitudes toward disability, decreased support of recruitment efforts, as well as decreased intentions of hiring people with disabilities. CONCLUSION: Results support the implementation of tailored interventions directed at specific areas of concern for employers and employees in hiring positions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: When linking the employment rate, retention rate, and the cost of turnover, the data suggest educators, rehabilitation counselors, and employment providers need to teach people with disabilities job retention skills to improve employment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this narrative literature review was to (a) identify evidence-based job retention interventions for people with disabilities and (b) identify specific skills which may be beneficial to teach to adults with disabilities in postsecondary education, adult education or employment services to improve the employment retention outcomes. METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed quantitative research published from 1994 –June…2019 resulted in 6 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Four intervention strategies showed statistically significant improvement in job retention for people with disabilities. The first strategy was developing and applying individuals’ self-determination/self-advocacy skills in discussing accommodations and resolving work-related challenges. Other intervention strategies with statistically significant impacts on job retention included social skills, learning how to manage medications, and receiving natural supports on the job. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of job retention interventions may result in valuable skill sets for people with disabilities. Discrete intervention strategies and skill sets were found in the review of literature. A replication of studies with participants from diverse socio-economic backgrounds is needed to fully understand the potential of these job retention intervention strategies to improve employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of studies examining attitudes toward people with disabilities (PWDs) in a workplace context, little is known about attitudes in other social contexts such as dating and marriage. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is threefold. First, the study seeks to examine how social context (i.e., work, dating, marriage) influences attitudes toward people with physical disabilities (PWPDs). Second, it examines potential influence of participant characteristics (i.e., gender, major, disability education, and frequency of contact). Third, it explores whether attitudes vary across different disability types. METHODS: To measure the influence of social context on…attitudes toward PWPDs, the study used the Disability Social Relationship Scale (DSR), which was completed by 395 undergraduate students in Austria. RESULTS: Participants demonstrate more positive attitudes toward PWPDs in the workplace than in the social contexts of dating and marriage. Participants who had more frequent contact with PWDs (i.e., in a workplace/service setting or in a personal relationship) demonstrate more positive attitudes toward PWPDs. Participants have more positive attitudes toward some disability types (i.e., deafness/hardness of hearing) than others (blindness/visual impairment). CONCLUSION: We offer recommendations for future research and practice aimed at creating awareness of biases toward PWDs while promoting social justice.
Keywords: Attitudes toward people with disabilities, physical disabilities, social context, Disability Social Relationship Scale (DSR), discipline, disability type
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy is a key psychosocial factor influencing the outcome of vocational rehabilitation programs. There is lack of a validated job-seeking self-efficacy measure for Chinese persons with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate the Chinese version of the Job-Seeking Self-Efficacy Scale (C-JSS) developed by Barlow, Wright, and Cullen (2002) and to examine its psychometric properties using a Chinese sample of persons with disabilities. METHODS: JSS was first translated into Chinese and reviewed by vocational rehabilitation practitioners and persons with disabilities. Ninety-seven Chinese participants with disabilities were recruited to fill in the…questionnaire of JSS and other questions. The internal consistency, structural and coverage validities of C-JSS were evaluated. RESULTS: C-JSS showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.95) and unidimensional factorial structure. For concurrent validity, there were significant correlations between C-JSS with the score of WHODAS 2.0 (p = 0.001), educational level (p < 0.001), job-seeking behavior (p = 0.031), and self-reported professional skills (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that C-JSS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the self-efficacy of job-seeking behavior among a Chinese sample of persons with disabilities.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Job interviewing serves a key function in the process of gaining employment. To date, no research has evaluated whether a literacy-based behavioral intervention (LBBI) might be used to improve the essential vocational skill of job interviewing. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a LBBI for the acquisition of job interviewing skills. METHODS: Using a combined experimental design (multiple probe, A1 B1 A2 B2 , non-concurrent multiple baseline) across participants, three young adults with intellectual disability who received an in-person and remote LBBI were evaluated on their…correct and independent performance on a task analysis created for job interviewing. Generalization and maintenance were also assessed. RESULTS: The results showed that all three students mastered job interviewing skills with 100% accuracy and maintained the acquired skills after the intervention was removed. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that LBBI is an effective tool to teach and practice job interviewing skills, and can be implemented face-to-face and virtually. Educators, vocational rehabilitation professionals, and families can use this tool in a wide range of settings.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recent trends in demographics and the labor market, such as an ageing workforce, bring forth a significant societal transformation and force organizations to conform to new circumstances. Diversity management strategies may help to counteract negative outcomes of these developments. However, organizational diversity triggers various reactions among the established workforce, evoking positive as well as negative social dynamics. OBJECTIVE: In order to better understand the dynamics that arise from workplace diversity, specifically from workplace disability, the present paper outlines the development of an eleven-item measure of perceived workplace acceptance. METHODS: Three independent samples of employees with…disabilities (including multisource data) were used to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the scale. RESULTS: The scale shows good psychometric properties and exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analyses indicate that workplace acceptance is a unidimensional construct. The study shows that the scale is significantly related to constructs such as health and productivity, self-esteem, intent to leave, motivation, organizational commitment, and attitudes of colleagues, providing evidence for criterion-related validity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present study provides evidence for the validity of the Workplace Acceptance Scale and suggests that the workplace acceptance construct has important implications for both individuals with disabilities and groups of colleagues.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Students with disabilities often experience numerous challenges in terms of finding employment. Given the important role of vocational rehabilitation counselors in supporting employment activities for these students, a need exists for identifying effective strategies that increase employment outcomes for this population. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review is to examine and describe successful research- based interventions on pre-employment transition services for students with disabilities that can be used by vocational rehabilitation counselors. METHODS: The search strategy examined literature from 1998 through 2017 focused on vocational rehabilitation counselors, students with disabilities, and elements related to…pre-employment transition services. Articles included American, European, and Australian literature published in English. RESULTS: This review identified a number of research-based interventions that support employment outcomes for students with disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: The research-based interventions identified in this scoping review can help vocational rehabilitation counselors consider effective strategies for increasing employment outcomes for students with disabilities.
Keywords: Students with disabilities, vocational rehabilitation, employment outcomes, research-based interventions
Abstract: BACKGROUND: This article describes people with multiple sclerosis (MS) as an emerging vocational rehabilitation (VR) clientele. OBJECTIVE: Following an overview of the incidence, prevalence, and impact of MS, the authors suggest strategies to meet the employment and career development needs of Americans with MS across the phases of the VR process. The importance of individualized case planning, employer consultation, workplace accommodations, and interface with medical and mental health professionals is emphasized throughout the article. CONCLUSION: Implications related to the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: While the health and economic impact of COVID-19 is becoming better known among the general population, little is known about the impact of the pandemic and recession on employees with intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent recession on individuals with IDD. METHODS: The present paper described the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and recession on the employment status, hours worked, and hourly wage of 156 individuals with IDD who work in competitive integrated employment for February to July 2020. These…findings are compared with a similar group receiving services from the same agency in February to July 2019. RESULTS: Findings indicate that these employees were not able to work from home and experienced furlough or lay off instead. Further, the number of hours worked monthly was also significantly affected. Wages were not affected by the pandemic and recession. Employees in some industries, notably health care and distribution and supplies, were less affected than employees in other industries like food service, retail, and entertainment. Finally, and surprisingly, black, indigenous, and other people of color worked more hours monthly than their white peers in both 2019 and 2020. CONCLUSION: Implications of these findings are discussed.