Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM): An Interdisciplinary Approach Throughout the Lifespan is designed to parallel the multidisciplinary teams caring for children, adolescents and adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities and complex care needs worldwide. Published quarterly, topics include, and are not limited to, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina bifida, limb deficiency, muscular dystrophy, stroke, cancer, developmental delays, and rare disorders. Furthermore, the journal welcomes papers dedicated to pediatric rehabilitation from a global health perspective.
The aim of JPRM is to engage a diverse group of international experts with the goal of providing readers with comprehensive information regarding children and adolescents requiring rehabilitation. JPRM brings together specialists from medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition, child life, family centered care, and occupational, physical, and speech therapy. For manuscript submissions, authorship involving at least two different specialties is encouraged, although not required, to facilitate a transdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Manuscripts are blinded and peer reviewed including biostatistical analysis. Authors are invited to submit original research, systematic and scoping reviews, guidelines, protocols, care pathways, case reports, book reviews, commentaries, editorials, and dates for future conferences.
Abstract: PURPOSE: This pooled analysis of data from three Phase 3 studies investigated the effects of incobotulinumtoxinA on spasticity-related pain (SRP) in children/adolescents with uni-/bilateral cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Children/adolescents (ambulant and non-ambulant) were evaluated for SRP on increasingly difficult activities/tasks 4 weeks after each of four incobotulinumtoxinA injection cycles (ICs) using the Questionnaire on Pain caused by Spasticity (QPS; six modules specific to lower limb [LL] or upper limb [UL] spasticity and respondent type [child/adolescent, interviewer, or parent/caregiver]). IncobotulinumtoxinA doses were personalized, with all doses pooled for analysis. RESULTS: QPS key item responses were available from…331 and 155 children/adolescents with LL- and UL-spasticity, respectively, and 841/444 (LL/UL) of their parents/caregivers. IncobotulinumtoxinA efficacy was evident with the first IC. Efficacy was sustained and became more robust with further subsequent ICs. By Week 4 of the last (i.e. fourth) IC, 33.8–53.3% of children/adolescents reported complete SRP relief from their baseline pain for respective QPS items. Children/adolescents reported reductions in mean LL SRP intensity at levels that surpassed clinically meaningful thresholds. Similarly, parents/caregivers observed complete SRP relief and less frequent SRP with incobotulinumtoxinA. Similar results were found for UL SRP. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that incobotulinumtoxinA could bring considerable benefit to children/adolescents with spasticity by reducing SRP, even during strenuous activities.
Keywords: Botulinum toxin, muscle spasticity, all movement disorders, all pediatric, cerebral palsy, pain
Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess the performance of premature infant oral motor intervention for transition from gavage to full spoon feeding in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm neonates born between 28 + 0 –32 + 6 weeks gestation (n = 32) were randomised into an intervention group (premature infant oral motor intervention) for five minutes twice a day along with routine care (n = 16) and a control group (routine care, n = 16) once they reached a feed volume of at least 150 ml/kg/day administered by gavage method. The primary outcome measure was time (in days) to transition from gavage to full spoon feeds. RESULTS:…The mean (SD) time to transition from gavage to full spoon feeds was attained significantly earlier in the intervention group than the control group (9.93 [5.83 ] vs 16.43 [10.46 ] days; mean difference, -6.5 days; 95% CI, -12.58 to -0.41). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the duration of hospital stay, rates of physiological stability, and culture positive sepsis. CONCLUSION: Premature infant oral motor intervention, as used in this specific population, significantly reduces the time to transition to full spoon feeds without increasing culture positive sepsis and physiological instability.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The demands of caring for children with cerebral palsy (CWCP) may lead to burnout among the informal caregivers of these children. However, this subject area has not received significant research attention in Nigeria. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association between burnout level of informal caregivers of CWCP and the motor performance of the CWCP. The association between burnout level of the informal caregivers and selected clinical variables of CWCP was also investigated. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of 75 consecutively-sampled informal caregivers (34.76±8.7 years) of CWCP and an equal number of…their CWCP. Burnout level of the caregivers and motor performance of the CWCP were assessed using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) and Gross Motor Function Classification System Family Questionnaire (GMFCSFQ) respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse results at alpha = 0.05. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant positive association between the CBI scores and the GMFCSFQ scores (p < 0.05). Age of the CWCP as well as type and topography of the cerebral palsy were not significantly associated with the caregivers’ burnout level. Similarly, the age and sex of the caregivers had no statistically significant association with their burnout level (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Caregiving for children with lower motor performance is associated with higher burnout among caregivers. This may impact negatively on the overall health of the caregivers and the quality of care for the CWCP.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The incidence of dystonic cerebral palsy causing significant morbidity is on the rise. There is a paucity of evidence for the management of dystonia in children. METHODS: Forty-one children aged 6 months-5 years with predominantly dystonic cerebral palsy were started on a predetermined protocol of trihexyphenidyl (0.25–0.52 mg/kg) and followed up at 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Dystonia severity, motor function and developmental age at baseline and 12 weeks were compared using the Global Dystonia Scale (GDS), the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and Fine Motor/Perceptual Subscale of the Early Developmental Profile-2. Thirty-four children completed the entire 12…weeks of intervention. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 25±11 months. A significant decrease in median total dystonia scores on the GDS was observed post-intervention (74.5 to 59, p < 0.0001), and 64% of participants gained motor milestones. GMFM scores increased significantly from a median of 19.8% pre-intervention to 26.5% post-intervention (p < 0.0001). There was improvement in the fine motor domain as compared to the baseline (p < 0.0001). The number of children classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 and 2 increased to 47.05% from 5.88% in the pre-intervention group. CONCLUSION: Trihexyphenidyl significantly improved dystonia, motor function and development in children with dystonic cerebral palsy in this study. Additional studies are needed to clarify its role in larger numbers of children with this condition.
Abstract: PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effects of an instrumented balance board on the balance parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy by carrying out a pilot single-group pre-post clinical trial. METHODS: Five children aged 5 to 15 years with spastic diplegia and a Gross Motor Function Classification System level of I or II were included. All participants attended 20 sessions with an instrumented balance board, 45 minutes per session, 3 times a week for 7 weeks. The main outcome measures included the center of pressure excursion, velocity, and overshoot during quiet standing with open and closed eyes. The…assessments were performed in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions at pre- and one week post-intervention. RESULTS: Non-parametric tests showed that the excursion did not change significantly except in the mediolateral direction with eyes closed (p < 0.05). The velocity of the center of pressure improved in both directions and eye conditions (p < 0.05). Also, the maximum velocity decreased with eyes open (mediolateral, anteroposterior, and total) (p < 0.05), while the change was not significant with the eyes closed. The overshoot measurements did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: It is recommended to consider balance board training for improving balance parameters in children with cerebral palsy.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, spastic, balance board, balance, center of pressure, rehabilitation
Abstract: PURPOSE: The study sought to examine the content validity, the intra- and inter-rater reliability, and concurrent validity of the Japanese versions of the Manual Ability Classification System, the Communication Function Classification System, and the Eating and Drinking Ability Classification System, and representation of the distribution of the levels of each classification systems in comparison to the Gross Motor Function Classification System levels for children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: The Japanese versions were developed using the back-translation method. For content validity, professionals were asked to complete a questionnaire including items on the appropriateness of the translation, its validity, and…distinctions among levels. For reliability, professionals used the three classification systems twice in children with cerebral palsy. For concurrent validity, relationships among the four classification systems were examined by correlation analyses. RESULTS: Participants included twenty-one professionals and 290 children with cerebral palsy (mean age: 12 years two months, female: 132, male: 158). The content validity was generally good. For reliability, the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for the intraclass correlation coefficients was greater than 0.89, and the correlation coefficients were high. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed good reliability and validity of the functional classification systems in Japan.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, manual ability classification system, communication function classification system, eating and drinking ability classification system
Abstract: PURPOSE: Sixty percent of children with bilateral cerebral palsy have impaired hand function. The study’s purpose was to examine the benefits of bimanual task practice on the manual ability and hand function of children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. METHODS: In this pre-post study design, 18 children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy with an average age of 11.5 (+/-1.9) years, Manual Ability Classification System levels I-III and Bimanual Fine Motor Function levels I-III participated in bimanual task practice of upper extremities. The task practice included clay activities, paper manipulation and activities of daily needs. The children underwent 45-minute…training sessions 3 times a week over 6 weeks. The outcome measures were ABILHAND-Kids, Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test and grip strength. RESULTS: Post-training, a mean change of 6.44 logits in ABILHAND-Kids, 11 points on the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, and 3.3 and 3.1 kilograms grip strength in the dominant and nondominant hands respectively were observed with a statistical significance (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Bimanual task training might be beneficial in improving manual ability, hand function and grip strength in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The goal of this retrospective chart review study was to explore factors that contributed to consideration of or actual pump explantation in pediatric patients with intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pumps. METHODS: Medical records of 30 patients with ITB pumps were reviewed. Quantitative data, including demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and service utilization variables were culled from the records. Qualitative data were collected from clinic visit notes, pump-related follow-up phone calls, and any pump-related emergency room visits. RESULTS: Of those reviewed, six underwent ITB pump explantation, and two considered explantation. Factors contributing to pump explantation or consideration of explantation…included the following: postoperative infection, pump malfunction, non-adherence, anxiety/behavioral factors impacting the patient’s tolerance of the pump, distance to the medical provider, frequency of required pump refill appointments, lack or perceived lack of intrathecal baclofen effect, and difficulty transitioning to adult care providers. CONCLUSION: Due to the complex care regimen associated with ITB pumps and various psychosocial and logistical factors that impact treatment success, a standardized multidisciplinary pre-implantation education, screening, and assessment process should be developed. Such a process would ensure that patients/families receive appropriate education, including proactively identifying treatment barriers and potential complications, possibly minimizing dissatisfaction with treatment and the need for explantation.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, and discriminant validity of the Quantitative Timed up and Go (QTUG) in typically developing (TD) children and children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Twenty-eight TD children and 8 with CP (GMFCS I-II) completed 3 TUG trials while wearing QTUG sensors. Test-retest reliability and discriminative ability were examined for the 57 constituent parameters of the TUG. Relationships between age and these parameters were also examined. RESULTS: Forty-four of the parameters demonstrated moderate to excellent test-retest reliability, with measures of angular velocity being the most reliable. Twenty-six…parameters were different between TD children and those with CP, and twenty-eight gait parameters demonstrated correlations with age, further supporting its discriminative ability. CONCLUSION: The QTUG is a clinically feasible tool that is capable of both reliably measuring and discriminating many of the movement parameters with the TUG mobility task in TD children and those with CP GMFCS I-II. The results of the present study provide preliminary evidence that the QTUG can discriminate between children on several of the gait parameters within the TUG.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, children, children, gait, inertial sensors, QTUG, quantitative timed up and go, reliability
Abstract: PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the feasibility of using time-matched uniaxial accelerometers for measuring movement in daily life in children with cerebral palsy (CP) before and after botulinum toxin injections. METHODS: This observational study of clinical care with a pre-post design was set in the home and school environment. Participants included eleven children (4–13 years of age) with CP (GMFCS I-III). The children wore uniaxial accelerometers (ActiGraph, model GT1M) for 4 days on both wrists, the right ankle and around the waist before, 3 weeks and 3 months after BoNT-A injections in the legs. Five children also…got BoNT-A in the most affected arm. All injections were given according to clinical indications and routine. The accelerometers were all time-matched to define ambulation, arm swing, voluntary activity of arms, and bimanual activity. The feasibility of wearing accelerometers with this setup was evaluated. A linear mixed model was used for analysis of the percentage time and at which intensity the different activities were performed. The confidence interval demonstrated any difference between the dominant and non-dominant arm. RESULTS: Time-matching of accelerometers placed on both wrists, the waist, and one ankle is a feasible method of registering ambulation, arm swing during gait, and arm movements while not ambulating. Before injections, the children spent 5.6% of their time ambulating. This value declined to 3.9% at 3 months. Contrary to clinical goals, arm movement did not increase after injecting the most affected arm with BoNT-A, however, injections may have decreased mirror movements, which are often bothersome for the child. CONCLUSION: A time-matched 4-accelerometer set-up is feasible in children with cerebral palsy. A future study including time-matched multi-axial accelerometers on all four limbs, could provide important information on the effect of BoNT-A in daily life.
Keywords: Accelerometry, adolescent, botulinum toxins, Type A, cerebral palsy, child, extremities