Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
Purchase individual online access for 1 year to this journal.
Price: EUR 105.00
The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM): An Interdisciplinary Approach Throughout the Lifespan is designed to parallel the multidisciplinary teams caring for children, adolescents and adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities and complex care needs worldwide. Published quarterly, topics include, and are not limited to, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina bifida, limb deficiency, muscular dystrophy, stroke, cancer, developmental delays, and rare disorders. Furthermore, the journal welcomes papers dedicated to pediatric rehabilitation from a global health perspective.
The aim of JPRM is to engage a diverse group of international experts with the goal of providing readers with comprehensive information regarding children and adolescents requiring rehabilitation. JPRM brings together specialists from medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition, child life, family centered care, and occupational, physical, and speech therapy. For manuscript submissions, authorship involving at least two different specialties is encouraged, although not required, to facilitate a transdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Manuscripts are blinded and peer reviewed including biostatistical analysis. Authors are invited to submit original research, systematic and scoping reviews, guidelines, protocols, care pathways, case reports, book reviews, commentaries, editorials, and dates for future conferences.
Abstract: PURPOSE: This pooled analysis of data from three Phase 3 studies investigated the effects of incobotulinumtoxinA on spasticity-related pain (SRP) in children/adolescents with uni-/bilateral cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Children/adolescents (ambulant and non-ambulant) were evaluated for SRP on increasingly difficult activities/tasks 4 weeks after each of four incobotulinumtoxinA injection cycles (ICs) using the Questionnaire on Pain caused by Spasticity (QPS; six modules specific to lower limb [LL] or upper limb [UL] spasticity and respondent type [child/adolescent, interviewer, or parent/caregiver]). IncobotulinumtoxinA doses were personalized, with all doses pooled for analysis. RESULTS: QPS key item responses were available from…331 and 155 children/adolescents with LL- and UL-spasticity, respectively, and 841/444 (LL/UL) of their parents/caregivers. IncobotulinumtoxinA efficacy was evident with the first IC. Efficacy was sustained and became more robust with further subsequent ICs. By Week 4 of the last (i.e. fourth) IC, 33.8–53.3% of children/adolescents reported complete SRP relief from their baseline pain for respective QPS items. Children/adolescents reported reductions in mean LL SRP intensity at levels that surpassed clinically meaningful thresholds. Similarly, parents/caregivers observed complete SRP relief and less frequent SRP with incobotulinumtoxinA. Similar results were found for UL SRP. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that incobotulinumtoxinA could bring considerable benefit to children/adolescents with spasticity by reducing SRP, even during strenuous activities.
Keywords: Botulinum toxin, muscle spasticity, all movement disorders, all pediatric, cerebral palsy, pain
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the types of academic and health-related accommodations provided to adolescents and emerging adults with spina bifida aged 9-20 years. METHODS: Data was extracted from the paper and electronic records of transition-age youth enrolled in the study. Four open ended items involved content analysis. RESULTS: The most frequently identified accommodation was enrollment in special education classes in 47.7% of the charts. Other academic accommodations that were most often reported were adaptive physical education (n = 71, 39.9%), tutoring (n = 28; 15.7%), and home schooling (n = 21; 11.8%). Clean…intermittent catheterization was the most frequently identified health-related accommodation provided by the school nurse/aide (n = 57; 32%).The largest percentage of requests for additional accommodations were made during the middle school grades (15; 54.8%) followed by high school (10; 32.2%). CONCLUSION: Findings demonstrated that persistent issues were identified by parents/adolescents regarding the provision of school-related accommodations. This is a relevant area for clinical practice to ensure students with special health care needs and those with spina bifida receive the academic and health-related accommodations in their Individualized Education Program/504 plans.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To assess the performance of premature infant oral motor intervention for transition from gavage to full spoon feeding in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm neonates born between 28 + 0 –32 + 6 weeks gestation (n = 32) were randomised into an intervention group (premature infant oral motor intervention) for five minutes twice a day along with routine care (n = 16) and a control group (routine care, n = 16) once they reached a feed volume of at least 150 ml/kg/day administered by gavage method. The primary outcome measure was time (in days) to transition from gavage to full spoon feeds. RESULTS:…The mean (SD) time to transition from gavage to full spoon feeds was attained significantly earlier in the intervention group than the control group (9.93 [5.83 ] vs 16.43 [10.46 ] days; mean difference, -6.5 days; 95% CI, -12.58 to -0.41). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the duration of hospital stay, rates of physiological stability, and culture positive sepsis. CONCLUSION: Premature infant oral motor intervention, as used in this specific population, significantly reduces the time to transition to full spoon feeds without increasing culture positive sepsis and physiological instability.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, and discriminant validity of the Quantitative Timed up and Go (QTUG) in typically developing (TD) children and children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Twenty-eight TD children and 8 with CP (GMFCS I-II) completed 3 TUG trials while wearing QTUG sensors. Test-retest reliability and discriminative ability were examined for the 57 constituent parameters of the TUG. Relationships between age and these parameters were also examined. RESULTS: Forty-four of the parameters demonstrated moderate to excellent test-retest reliability, with measures of angular velocity being the most reliable. Twenty-six…parameters were different between TD children and those with CP, and twenty-eight gait parameters demonstrated correlations with age, further supporting its discriminative ability. CONCLUSION: The QTUG is a clinically feasible tool that is capable of both reliably measuring and discriminating many of the movement parameters with the TUG mobility task in TD children and those with CP GMFCS I-II. The results of the present study provide preliminary evidence that the QTUG can discriminate between children on several of the gait parameters within the TUG.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, children, children, gait, inertial sensors, QTUG, quantitative timed up and go, reliability
Abstract: PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the feasibility of using time-matched uniaxial accelerometers for measuring movement in daily life in children with cerebral palsy (CP) before and after botulinum toxin injections. METHODS: This observational study of clinical care with a pre-post design was set in the home and school environment. Participants included eleven children (4–13 years of age) with CP (GMFCS I-III). The children wore uniaxial accelerometers (ActiGraph, model GT1M) for 4 days on both wrists, the right ankle and around the waist before, 3 weeks and 3 months after BoNT-A injections in the legs. Five children also…got BoNT-A in the most affected arm. All injections were given according to clinical indications and routine. The accelerometers were all time-matched to define ambulation, arm swing, voluntary activity of arms, and bimanual activity. The feasibility of wearing accelerometers with this setup was evaluated. A linear mixed model was used for analysis of the percentage time and at which intensity the different activities were performed. The confidence interval demonstrated any difference between the dominant and non-dominant arm. RESULTS: Time-matching of accelerometers placed on both wrists, the waist, and one ankle is a feasible method of registering ambulation, arm swing during gait, and arm movements while not ambulating. Before injections, the children spent 5.6% of their time ambulating. This value declined to 3.9% at 3 months. Contrary to clinical goals, arm movement did not increase after injecting the most affected arm with BoNT-A, however, injections may have decreased mirror movements, which are often bothersome for the child. CONCLUSION: A time-matched 4-accelerometer set-up is feasible in children with cerebral palsy. A future study including time-matched multi-axial accelerometers on all four limbs, could provide important information on the effect of BoNT-A in daily life.
Keywords: Accelerometry, adolescent, botulinum toxins, Type A, cerebral palsy, child, extremities
Abstract: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D levels and related factors in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: One hundred and nineteen children with CP between the ages of 1 year to 10 years 9 months who were admitted to the children’s inpatient rehabilitation unit of a tertiary rehabilitation hospital between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018, were included in this study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained from the patient files. CP types and serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels were recorded. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to…assess the functional level. RESULTS: Mean age was 5.1±2.9 years. Forty-two (35.3%) were girls, 105 (88.3%) were spastic, and 14 (11.7%) were ataxic and mixed type CP. Mean GMFCS level was 4 (IQR:2). Thirty-one (26.1%) were getting extra liquid feed while the rest were eating a normal diet. Mean serum 25OHD level was 27.4±15.7 (3–79) ng/mL. Vitamin D levels were normal in 68 children (57.1%), whereas 36 (30.3%) had vitamin D insufficiency and 15 (12.6%) showed vitamin D deficiency. Those whose serum vitamin D levels were within a normal range had a median age of 3.8 (IQR:4.2) years. On the other hand, mean age was 6.4 (4.3) years for those with low vitamin D level (p < 0.0001). Vitamin D level was 19.8 (21.4) ng/mL in those (n = 88) who had regular diets, whereas it was 31.0 [16 ] ng/mL in those (n = 31) who were getting extra liquid feed (p = 0.015). There was no statistically significant correlation between vitamin D level and gender, GMFCS, CP type, season or antiepileptic drug treatment. A binary logistic regression model showed that older age and having only regular meals were significant risk factors for low vitamin D. CONCLUSION: In this study, 42.9% of the children with CP had low vitamin D. Older children with CP or those who had regular diets were higher risk groups in terms of low vitamin D.
Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) technology has seen increasing use in physical rehabilitation and in the management of acute and chronic pain. Functional movement disorders (FMDs) are a source of disability with no known association to neurologic pathology, and patients are generally offered multidisciplinary treatment approaches to improve functional movement. However, patients who are not compliant with rehabilitation may have persistent FMD and long-term disability. Given VR’s use in physical rehabilitation, it may serve as a useful adjunct for the management of FMD. Utilizing an application called MovementTM to create a playlist of targeted applications for the restoration of motor function…and balance, this case study presents the application of VR as a tool to engage patients in physical therapy for the management of FMD. The VR games were selected to encourage movement while customization of levels within the games facilitated achievement of physical therapy goals. Physical rehabilitation aided by VR, when used in collaboration with a multidisciplinary care team, may be used to facilitate recovery from FMD.
Keywords: Functional movement disorder, functional neurologic disorder, psychogenic movement disorder, conversion disorder, dyskinesias, virtual reality
Abstract: PURPOSE: In children with cerebral palsy (CP), gastrocnemius muscle spasticity may lead to pes equinus posture which causes insufficient ankle joint dorsiflexion for normal gait. The aim of this study was to analyze the stiffness of gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles by shear wave elastography (SWE) in children with pes equinus deformity due to spastic CP. METHODS: 24 legs of 12 children (6 females and 6 males, mean age 45.8 months) with CP were prospectively included in the study. Tissue stiffness quantification with shear-wave velocity (SWV) was analyzed. RESULTS: The mean SWVs of the gastrocnemius and…tibialis anterior muscles were 3.91±0.26 m/s and 2.67±0.18 m/s, respectively. The stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly higher than the stiffness of the tibialis anterior muscle (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between the stiffness of these muscles (r = 0.129, p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Gastrocnemius muscles were stiffer than tibialis anterior muscles in patients with spastic CP. But stiffness between these muscles was not correlated with each other. Pes equinus may be related to stiff gastrocnemius in these patients. This study demonstrates the clinical potential for SWE as a non-invasive tool for analyzing calf muscle stiffness.
Abstract: PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of the challenge point framework (CPF) to improve stepping reactions and enhance balance in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP). The CPF relates practice variables to the skill level of the individual and task difficulty. METHODS: Nine children with HCP (age: 7.7±2.4 years) completed six weeks (12 sessions) of a CPF intervention which consisted of progressively fewer sets and repetitions of a stepping reaction task wherein participants sought to improve both step length and reaction rate. Stepping reaction (step length and reaction rate) to a balance perturbation in the anterior, posterior, and…lateral directions and static and dynamic balance (via the Pediatric Balance Scale) were measured at baseline, a second baseline 3 weeks later, and post-intervention. Repeated measures ANOVAs determined within-group changes. Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated. RESULTS: Participants improved balance (d = 0.948, p = 0.010), step length (forward d = 0.938, p = 0.002; backward d = 0.839, p = 0.001; and lateral d = 0.876, p = 0.002), and reaction rate (forward d = 0.249, p = 0.042; backward d = 0.21, p = 0.047; and lateral d = 0.198, p = 0.049). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that children with HCP may benefit from completing a CPF program with a motor learning approach. This approach of retraining stepping reactions helped to improve static and dynamic balance. The CPF may aid progression of functional task training in children with HCP aged 4–12, though more studies with a long-term follow-up analysis are needed to confirm this result.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, challenge point framework, balance
Abstract: PURPOSE: Patients with neurogenic bladder (NB) often perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) and are predisposed to bladder colonization. Antibiotics are not routinely indicated in those with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). The original purpose of this study was to compare patients that received antibiotics for ASB and those that did not. However, because the non-antibiotic group was very small, the final analysis evaluated treatment patterns of ASB in children with NB. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was completed, including patients who presented with urinary tract infection (UTI) and NB managed by CIC. Patients with symptoms of UTI were excluded. Basic…demographics, urinalysis, culture results, and antibiotic prescriptions were collected. RESULTS: The sample included 272 patient encounters for 109 unique patients. Of these, 50.7% were female, and the median age was 10.25 years. More than half the urine cultures (56.2%) grew gram-negative organisms, and 31.3% contained 2 or more organisms. Nearly all encounters received treatment with antibiotics. Twenty-three encounters with no culture performed or the culture resulted in no growth received antibiotic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic resistance and antibiotic stewardship are primary concerns in healthcare today. This organization’s current practice pattern shows high antibiotic use for ASB in patients with NB. Future studies are required to identify outcomes associated with treatment versus non-treatment in these patients.