Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume 6, issue 2
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Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine: An Interdisciplinary Approach is an international journal designed to parallel the multi-disciplinary team approach of caring for a child with an acute or chronic disease. The issues will primarily be themed and broad in scope including, but not be limited to cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina-bifida, amputation, muscular dystrophies of all types, stroke, cancer, mental retardation, developmental delays, and others.
The aim is to include a wide range of experts who care for children with the above diagnosis. Authorship by two different disciplines is requested though not required to encourage an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach. The goal is for the reader to obtain not just the medical perspective, but also nursing, occupational, physical and speech therapy, psychology, home care, etc., in providing the most comprehensive care for children. Manuscripts will be blinded and peer reviewed with appropriate feedback. Statistical analysis will be reviewed by the biostatistician. Readers are encouraged to submit and or suggest case reviews, commentaries, editorials, original research, conference schedules, or reviews.
Abstract: AIMS: Estimate the prevalence of specific developmental, emotional, and behavioral (DEB) problems across selected chronic health conditions; examine the relationship of chronic health conditions to functional activities and participation; determine the potential confounding effect of sociodemographic factors on the prevalence of DEB problems. METHODS: The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, served as the primary data source for this study. A total of 91.642 interviews (66.6%…response rate for identified households with children) were performed. Population-based estimates were obtained for variables of interest by assigning sampling weights to each child for whom an interview was completed. RESULTS: Parents were two to 30 times more likely to report DEB problems, such as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, depression, learning problems, and challenging behaviors, for children with chronic health conditions. These children had a greater number and range of difficulties with social interaction and school functioning as well as a lower rate of participation in community activities. Although highest rates of DEB problems were reported for those conditions involving the nervous or sensory systems, children with asthma, diabetes, and musculoskeletal conditions also had a higher rate of problems than children without the conditions. The higher prevalence of DEB problems remained after statistical adjustment for socio-demographic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Children with a spectrum of chronic health conditions are at high risk for DEB problems that affect learning, behavior, and emotional well-being. As part of a comprehensive approach to the management of chronic health conditions, children should be screened for these problems and referred for appropriate further evaluation and remediation. Attention to these common co-morbidities will not only result in enhanced quality of life but will also promote better adherence to medical recommendations and, thereby, optimal disease control.
Keywords: Chronic health condition, development, behavior, emotional problems, co-morbidities
Abstract: AIMS: To explore the course of recovery of consciousness and factors predicting the outcome of severe brain injury with a prolonged period of unconsciousness in children and young adults receiving a specialized rehabilitation treatment, the Early Intensive Neurorehabilitation Programme (EINP). METHODS: A cohort of forty-four patients aged 1.6–25.5 years (M=16.0) with traumatic acquired brain injury (TBI) or non-traumatic acquired brain injury (nTBI) were examined using the Western Neuro Sensory Stimulation Profile…every two weeks, from the application for EINP until discharge. The level of consciousness was assessed with the Post-Acute Level of Consciousness Scale, and the level of disability was determined by the Disability Rating Scale. Long-term level of disability of all TBI patients (N=32) was assessed between 2.0 and 4.4 years after discharge from EINP. RESULTS: Two-thirds of all patients recovered to consciousness. Three recovery patterns were identified: remaining in a vegetative state (VS), slow recovery of consciousness, and fast recovery of consciousness. In the long-term, 11 of the TBI patients were severely disabled, 13 were moderately disabled, and 4 were mildly disabled. All TBI patients who were in VS at discharge either had deceased, or recovered to a very severely disabled state. CONCLUSIONS: Three recovery patterns identified in an early stage after starting EINP made it possible to predict long-term level of disability.
Keywords: Brain injury, level of consciousness, long-term outcome, paediatric rehabilitation, minimally conscious state, vegetative state
Abstract: AIMS: Investigate the efficacy of risedronate sodium (Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, USA) for treating reduced lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) in non-ambulatory patients. METHODS: Nine (10–39 years, mean age 23.0 years, 7 males) in the risedronate arm and 10 (10–35 years, mean age 21.4 years, 8 males) in the placebo arm completed 24 months of therapy at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The primary outcome was change in LS BMD assessed by dual energy x-ray…absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary outcomes included changes in serum bone markers, bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and N-telopeptides. Mixed models examined group, time, and the group by time interaction for the 4 post-baseline time points. RESULTS: The change in LS BMD score from baseline to 24 months was 0.069 (95% CI 0.014 to 0.124) in risedronate participants compared to −0.015 (95% CI −0.073 to 0.042) (t Value = −2.40, P > t=0.03) in the controls. When controlling for baseline scores, the difference was consistent across four post-baseline time points tested (F=5.67, Pr > F=0.03). No differences in serum bone markers were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Risedronate increases LS BMD in non-ambulatory patients with minimal side effects.
Keywords: Bone mineral density, bisphosphonates, cerebral palsy, children
Abstract: AIMS: To describe the inpatient health service use and insurance types for hospitalized children with spina bifida compared to children generally and to evaluate hospital discharge and insurance type trends over a 10-year study period. METHODS: The cross-sectional secondary data analyses were conducted using the 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009 Kid's Inpatient Databases. Diagnoses were identified by ICD-9 codes and hospital type was categorized based on the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions…designations. Chi-squared tests and the Wald test of trend were used for the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Children with spina bifida are more likely to receive their inpatient care in children's hospitals or pediatric units compared to all children. Children with spina bifida were most commonly admitted for shunt malfunction and repair. The percentage of children covered by Medicaid rose during the study period for both children with spina bifida and children generally. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first of its kind to document longitudinal trends in inpatient utilization, insurance type, and reason for admission for children with spina bifida. The changing trends in insurance coverage should be closely monitored because insurance is closely linked to health care access, which is linked to health outcomes.
Keywords: Spina bifida, hospital utilization, insurance type
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ambulatory children with Spina Bifida (SB) often show a decline in physical activity leading to deconditioning and functional decline. Therefore, assessment and promotion of physical activity is important. Because energy expenditure during activities is higher in these children, the use of existing pediatric equations to predict physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) may not be valid. AIMS: (1) To evaluate criterion validity of existing predictions converting accelerocounts into PAEE in ambulatory children with SB…and (2) to establish new disease-specific equations for PAEE. METHODS: Simultaneous measurements using the Actical, the Actiheart, and indirect calorimetry took place to determine PAEE in 26 ambulatory children with SB. DATA ANALYSIS: Paired T-tests, Intra-class correlations limits of agreement (LoA), and explained variance (R^2 ) were used to analyze validity of the prediction equations using true PAEE as criterion. New equations were derived using regression techniques. RESULTS: While T-tests showed no significant differences for some models, the predictions developed in healthy children showed moderate ICC's and large LoA with true PAEE. The best regression models to predict PAEE were: PAEE=174.049+3.861 × HRAR – 60.285 × ambulatory status (R^2 =0.720) and PAEE=220.484+0.67 × Actical counts – 60.717 × ambulatory status (R^2 =0.681). CONCLUSIONS: Existing equations to predict PAEE are not valid for use in children with SB for the individual evaluation of PAEE. The best regression model was based on HRAR in combination with ambulatory status, followed by a new model for the Actical monitor. A benefit of HRAR is that it does not require the use of expensive accelerometry equipment. Further cross-validation of these models is still needed.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between respiratory function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and children with normal development, and to compare respiratory function between children with spastic diplegic and those with hemiplegic CP. METHOD: Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP, 14 children with spastic hemiplegic CP, and 14 normal children were enrolled, whose age, gender, height, weight, and body surface area were matched. All participants performed respiratory function…tests by inhaling a breath and then blowing the entire volume through a spirometer, as deeply and rapidly as possible. RESULTS: In general, children with spastic diplegic CP and those with hemiplegic CP showed lower respiratory function compared to children with normal development. In comparison between children with spastic CP and those with hemiplegic CP, statistical significance was observed only in FVC, FEV_1 , and PEF. CONCLUSION: Findings revealed significantly weaker respiratory function in children with CP as compared to normal children. In addition, children with spastic diplegic CP showed significantly lower forced expiratory function than those with spastic hemiplegic CP. Therefore, clinical assessment and therapeutic intervention for respiratory function should be carefully considered for children with spastic diplegic and hemiplegic CP.
Keywords: Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy, respiratory function test