Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume 15, issue 1
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The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM): An Interdisciplinary Approach Throughout the Lifespan is designed to parallel the multidisciplinary teams caring for children, adolescents and adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities and complex care needs worldwide. Published quarterly, topics include, and are not limited to, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina bifida, limb deficiency, muscular dystrophy, stroke, cancer, developmental delays, and rare disorders. Furthermore, the journal welcomes papers dedicated to pediatric rehabilitation from a global health perspective.
The aim of JPRM is to engage a diverse group of international experts with the goal of providing readers with comprehensive information regarding children and adolescents requiring rehabilitation. JPRM brings together specialists from medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition, child life, family centered care, and occupational, physical, and speech therapy. For manuscript submissions, authorship involving at least two different specialties is encouraged, although not required, to facilitate a transdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Manuscripts are blinded and peer reviewed including biostatistical analysis. Authors are invited to submit original research, systematic and scoping reviews, guidelines, protocols, care pathways, case reports, book reviews, commentaries, editorials, and dates for future conferences.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to describe the efficacy and adverse events of neuraxial anesthesia for post-operative pain control in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy with pre-existing intrathecal baclofen (ITB) pumps undergoing hip reconstructive or palliative surgery. METHODS: Twelve children (mean age 11.25 years) were included in the study with the following neuraxial anesthesia methods: indwelling epidural catheter (8 patients), neuraxial opioids administered through the side port of the ITB pump (3 patients), and single injection spinal anesthetic (1 patient). Observational pain scores and opioid requirements were quantified for all patients. RESULTS: There were…no ITB pump or surgical complications at a mean follow-up of 2.2 years. The average length of stay was 6 days. Patients had good post-operative pain control with a mean observational pain score of 0.7 and mean morphine equivalent use of 0.26mg/kg/day. Four patients required anti-emetics to control nausea and three patients had urinary retention requiring repeat catheterization, but all medical complications resolved prior to discharge. CONCLUSION: Neuraxial anesthesia can effectively control post-operative pain in children with a pre-existing ITB pump. Utilizing the side port of the ITB pump for administration of neuraxial opioids is an option when epidural or spinal anesthesia is not possible.
Abstract: Hip dysplasia, subluxation, and eventual hip dislocation are commonly encountered in the cerebral palsy population secondary to spasticity and loss of motor control, especially in those patients with more severe neurologic involvement. The treatment of hip disorders in these patients should take into account the degree of limb and hip involvement, pain severity, and overall functioning. Conservative management focuses on mitigating spasticity and preserving range of motion in order to provide an environment in which the femoral head remains concentrically reduced in the acetabulum. However, operative management, consisting of soft tissue or tendon releases, femoral or pelvic osteotomies, or hip…salvage procedures, is sometimes necessary to treat the painful, subluxated, or dislocated hip. Radiographic hip surveillance in the pediatric cerebral palsy population is used to guide operative treatment. Long term hip containment is generally improved when surgical intervention is performed in the earlier stages of dysplasia. Younger patients who demonstrate progressive hip subluxation despite conservative measures may be carefully selected to undergo soft tissue procedures. Bony reconstruction, with adjunctive soft tissue procedures, is often necessary to better contain the proximal femur in patients above the age of four years.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, hip dysplasia, operative treatment, pelvic and femoral osteotomy, hip salvage procedures
Abstract: Cerebral palsy (CP) encompasses a group of disorders pertaining to abnormalities in movement, tone, and/or posture due to a nonprogressive lesion to an immature brain. Hip dysplasia is the second most common orthopedic deformity seen in CP, and its severity can range from a hip at risk for subluxation to full hip dislocation with degenerative changes. The purpose of this article is to review the hip pathologies that occur in CP focusing on their pathogenesis, physical exam findings, impact on function, and conservative treatment. Through a review of the medical literature, it is demonstrated that early, aggressive, and comprehensive care…led by a pediatric physiatrist is essential to mitigate progression to complete hip dislocation and preserve range of motion, prevent contracture, and promote maximum functional ability in all children with CP.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, neuromuscular hip dysplasia, hypertonia, chemoneurolysis, function
Abstract: Optimum management of hip displacement in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is facilitated by an approach that focuses on anticipatory and preventive measures. Hip surveillance programs for children with CP were developed at the beginning of the new millennium, with the purpose of identifying hip displacement sufficiently early to permit a choice of effective management options. In the early years, hip surveillance was guided by epidemiological analysis of population-based studies of prevalence. In Australia, a National Hip Surveillance in CP Working Group was first convened in 2005. This resulted in a 2008 Consensus Statement of recommendations published and endorsed by…Australasian Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AusACPDM). The group undertook that the recommendations should be reviewed every 5 years to ensure currency and congruency with the emerging evidence base. As new evidence became available, hip surveillance guidelines developed, with the most recent 2020 Australian Hip Surveillance Guidelines endorsed by the AusACPDM. Implementing comprehensive hip surveillance programs has now been shown to improve the natural history of hip dislocations and improve quality of life. Standardised hip surveillance programs can also facilitate planning for multicentre research through harmonisation of data collection. This, in turn, can help with the identification of robust new evidence that is based on large cohort or population studies. Here a review of evidence informing the updated 2020 Hip Surveillance Guidelines is presented.
Keywords: Hip surveillance guidelines, cerebral palsy, progressive hip displacement, hip dislocation
Abstract: Postural management is a multi-disciplinary approach incorporating a comprehensive schedule of daily and night-time positions, equipment and physical activity to help maintain or improve body structures and function and increase activity and participation. Postural management may play a role in preventing contracture, deformity, pain, and asymmetry. This article provides an overview of the evidence supporting use of postural management to positively influence hip health in individuals with cerebral palsy, functioning as Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV or V. Sitting or lying without changing position for more than 8 hours, unsupported supine lying and asymmetrical or windswept postures are…associated with pain and hip subluxation/dislocation. Although high-quality experimental research is still limited by many factors, there is limited evidence of harm, and most individuals at GMFCS IV or V require positioning supports to enable participation and function and ease caregiving. Clinical recommendations combining research and clinical opinion support the early use of comfortable positioning routines and/or equipment to reduce time spent in sustained asymmetrical or potentially harmful sitting and lying positions. Supported standing, active weightbearing and stepping are recommended to promote active movement and position change when possible, depending on individual, family and caregiver routines and preferences.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, postural management, hip health, standers, sitting
Abstract: PURPOSE: To explore the existing literature on non-pharmacological and non-surgical pain management in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Databases (Cochrane Library, PubMed MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and PsycINFO) were systematically searched to identify literature on non-pharmacological and non-surgical interventions for relieving pain in children with CP or similar conditions. RESULTS: Thirteen publications met the inclusion criteria. Based on study designs, the overall level of evidence of the included studies was low, justifying the use of a scoping review. Only three were randomized controlled trials. Pain reduction was reported in 8 of the 13 studies…from following interventions: physiotherapy/rehabilitation, massage, cranial osteopathy, swimming and aquatics, and assistive devices. These complementary strategies should not omit conventional treatment, and a multidisciplinary approach using multifaceted treatment of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy is recommended to increase the pain-relieving effect. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that physiotherapy, massage, swimming exercise, and various assistive devices can have pain-relieving effects. We found limited evidence on the topic of non-pharmacological and non-surgical treatment of pain in children with CP. Due to the lack of power in the included studies, no true evidence-based recommendations can be made from the collected articles; thus, further studies with larger cohorts and more power are needed to substantiate evidence-based treatment of pain in children and adolescents with CP.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Caregivers provide unique insights into managing chronic pain in children and adolescents with dyskinetic and mixed dyskinetic/spastic cerebral palsy with communication limitations. This study explored the personal challenges caregivers face in supporting their child’s everyday pain management, including barriers and facilitators to effective chronic pain management. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with ten caregivers (all mothers) of children with either dyskinetic or mixed dyskinetic/spastic cerebral palsy. All children had chronic pain (> 3 months), were aged from 5 to 15 years, had significant functional limitations, and had either limited or no capacity to self-report their pain. Interpretative phenomenological…analysis was used to explore caregivers’ subjective experiences of managing their child’s chronic pain within family, school, and healthcare contexts. RESULTS: Five superordinate themes emerged: 1. the continual challenge of problem solving pain and dyskinesia; 2. the pursuit of a solution; 3. unfulfilled preferences within pain management; 4. all-encompassing effects on families; and 5. the ongoing impacts of pain and dyskinesia with age. CONCLUSION: There is a need for structured pain education and resources targeted towards caregivers and support workers that account for the complex overlay of dyskinesia. There is a further need to ensure caregiver preferences for non-pharmacological pain treatments are met within family-centred care models.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine whether adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) initiate and are up-to-date with the human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization series compared to adolescents in the general population. METHODS: Data on initiation and up-to-date status of the HPV series were collected on adolescents with CP aged 13–17 years old (n = 74) via retrospective medical record review and compared to 616 age-matched peers from the National Immunization Survey, Teen 2019. Analysis by gender, Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level, and ambulatory status was performed in the CP group. RESULTS: Adolescents with CP were three times less likely…to start (p < 0.001) and two times less likely to be up-to-date (p = 0.004) with the HPV immunization series compared to age-matched peers. When the HPV immunization series was initiated in adolescents with CP, these adolescents were as likely to complete the series (p = 0.400), with 83.3% being up-to-date. In those with CP, there was no statistical difference in status of the HPV immunization series when comparing gender, GMFCS level, or ambulatory status. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with CP were less likely to start the HPV immunization series; however, they were as likely to be up-to-date with the series if it was initiated. This presents an opportunity for pediatric physiatrists to help reduce the disparity.
Keywords: Cerebral palsy, human papillomavirus, vaccination, immunization, pediatric, cancer prevention