Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume 13, issue 4
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The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM): An Interdisciplinary Approach Throughout the Lifespan is designed to parallel the multidisciplinary teams caring for children, adolescents and adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities and complex care needs worldwide. Published quarterly, topics include, and are not limited to, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina bifida, limb deficiency, muscular dystrophy, stroke, cancer, developmental delays, and rare disorders. Furthermore, the journal welcomes papers dedicated to pediatric rehabilitation from a global health perspective.
The aim of JPRM is to engage a diverse group of international experts with the goal of providing readers with comprehensive information regarding children and adolescents requiring rehabilitation. JPRM brings together specialists from medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition, child life, family centered care, and occupational, physical, and speech therapy. For manuscript submissions, authorship involving at least two different specialties is encouraged, although not required, to facilitate a transdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Manuscripts are blinded and peer reviewed including biostatistical analysis. Authors are invited to submit original research, systematic and scoping reviews, guidelines, protocols, care pathways, case reports, book reviews, commentaries, editorials, and dates for future conferences.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Skin-related issues have a significant impact on health, activities of daily living, and quality of life among people with spina bifida. Data presented by select clinics that participate in the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry reported that 26% of individuals had a history of pressure injuries with 19% having had one in the past year. The spina bifida community lack direct guidelines on prevention of these and other skin related issues. The Integument (skin) Guidelines focus on prevention, not treatment, of existing problems. METHODS: Using a consensus building methodology, the guidelines were written by experts…in spina bifida and wound care. RESULTS: The guidelines include age-grouped, evidence-based guidelines written in the context of an understanding of the whole person. They are presented in table format according to the age of the person with spina bifida. CONCLUSION: These guidelines present a standardized approach to prevention of skin-related issues in spina bifida. Discovering what results in successful minimization of skin-related issues with testing of technology or prevention strategies is the next step in protecting this vulnerable population.
Abstract: It is estimated that a significant percentage of individuals with spina bifida (SB) are shorter than their age-matched typical peers. Parents of children with spina bifida may ask if human growth hormone is appropriate for their child. This article discusses short stature and the use of human growth hormone among children with SB. This guideline was developed for SB Healthcare Guidelines from the 2018 Spina Bifida Association’s Fourth Edition of the Guidelines for the Care of People with Spina Bifida.
Keywords: Spina bifida, short stature, human growth hormone, obesity, myelomeningocele, neural tube defects
Abstract: Children with spina bifida are at greater risk of developing central precocious puberty (CPP) compared to others. Therefore, early recognition and timely referral for further evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist allows appropriate management that reduces the impact of CPP. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of CPP in children with spina bifida. This guideline was developed for SB Transition Healthcare Guidelines from the 2018 Spina Bifida Association’s Fourth Edition of the Guidelines for the Care of People with Spina Bifida.
Abstract: Quality of Life (QOL) and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) are important concepts across the life span for those with spina bifida (SB). This article discusses the SB Quality of Life Healthcare Guidelines from the 2018 Spina Bifida Association’s Fourth Edition of the Guidelines for the Care of People with Spina Bifida. The focus of these QOL Guidelines was to summarize the evidence and expert opinions on how to mitigate factors that negatively impact QOL/HRQOL or enhance the factors positively related to QOL/HRQOL, the measurement of QOL/HRQOL and the gaps that need to be addressed in future research.
Keywords: Myelomeningocele, spina bifida, pain, continence, quality of life, health-related quality of life, neural tube defects
Abstract: Self-management and independence behaviors are associated with improved health conditions common to spina bifida such as skin integrity and bowel and bladder management. While most children with spina bifida ultimately achieve basic self-care behaviors, (e.g., dressing appropriately, planning activities with peers, or cooking pre-planned meals), they often lag 2–5 years behind their typically-developing peers in these activities . Valid and reliable condition-specific assessments of self-management and independence are critical to optimizing outcomes for this population. Partnerships among parents, clinicians, and youths with spina bifida are essential to implementing tailored interventions based on these assessments. The guidelines delineated in this article…are informed by current self-management research for people with spina bifida and offer recommendations to promote self-management and independence across the lifespan.
Abstract: An estimated 85% of individuals with spina bifida (SB) survive into adulthood, warranting SB-specific transition to adult healthcare guidelines to address the diverse and complex medical, adaptive, and social needs particular to this condition. Latex allergy constitutes one important health concern for this population that requires ongoing and life-long evidence-based management. This article discusses management of latex allergy according to the SB Latex Allergy Healthcare Guidelines from the 2018 Spina Bifida Association’s Fourth Edition of the Guidelines for the Care of People with Spina Bifida, reviews current care models in which such latex allergy guidelines can be implemented, and explores…further relevant research topics in SB care relative to latex allergy.
Abstract: Sexual development is not only comprised of the changes to a person’s body during puberty; it is a part of social development and should be considered in the context of basic and routine human desires for connectedness and intimacy, beliefs, values and aspirations. As is true for everyone, it is important that individuals with spina bifida have opportunities to acquire developmentally appropriate, relevant and accurate sexual health knowledge. Those with spina bifida need to be able to negotiate sexual desire, intimacy and sexual expression. They also need education about their sexual health and how to limit the negative outcomes of…sexual activity related to sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy or sexual coercion, violence, abuse or exploitation. This article discusses the Spina Bifida Sexual Health and Education Healthcare Guidelines from the 2018 Spina Bifida Association’s Fourth Edition of the Guidelines for the Care of People with Spina Bifida using the World Health Organization’s framing of sexual health and reviews the literature on sexual health and education for individuals with spina bifida.
Keywords: Spina bifida, myelomeningocele, neural tube defects, sexuality, sex education, sexual health
Abstract: The Spina Bifida Association (SBA) is the organization that represents the needs of the population with spina bifida (SB). They are tasked with advocacy, education, optimizing care, and providing a social voice for those with spina bifida. In response to the tenet of optimizing care they were tasked with developing up to date clinical care guidelines which address health care needs for those impacted by spina bifida throughout their lifespan. This article will discuss the SB Mobility Healthcare Guidelines from the 2018 Spina Bifida Association’s Fourth Edition of the Guidelines for the Care of People with Spina Bifida.
Abstract: Orthopedic or musculoskeletal problems are common in individuals with spina bifida. They can affect function and mobility and, in the case of spinal deformity, affect pulmonary function. We discuss the current treatment guidelines developed through collaboration with the Spina Bifida Association and the Orthopedics and Mobility working group using a specific methodology previously reported [1,2]. General considerations are discussed followed by evaluation and treatment guidelines for specific age ranges. References are provided where applicable, but where data is lacking treatment guidelines fall under the umbrella of clinical consensus. This leaves “research gaps” where areas of possible future study could be…considered.
Abstract: Nutritional challenges and a lack of activity can lead to health problems across the lifespan for people with spina bifida. Children and adults with spina bifida are also at greater risk of being classified as overweight or obese compared to their peers without the condition. Therefore, early recognition of nutrition problems, weight management counseling, and timely referrals for evaluation and management of diet and activity can help those with spina bifida and their families achieve a healthy lifestyle. This article details the development of the Nutrition, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity Guidelines, which are part of the 2018 Spina Bifida Association’s…Fourth Edition of the Guidelines for the Care of People with Spina Bifida. It discusses the identification and management of poor nutrition and prevention of obesity for children, adolescents, and adults with spina bifida and highlights areas requiring further research.
Abstract: Women and girls with spina bifida have specific health care concerns. It is essential that they, and their health care providers have access to information to help them make healthy choices throughout their lifespan. This article aims to address key aspects of health pertinent to girls and women with spina bifida and outlines the SB Women’s Health Guidelines for the Care of People with Spina Bifida. Further research into this area is needed.
Abstract: While the neuropsychological profile for individuals with Spina Bifida (SB) can vary, often certain patterns of strengths and weaknesses are evident across the lifespan. Understanding variability related to neural structure, genetics, ethnicity, and the environment is key to understanding individual differences in outcomes and can be vital in planning interventions and tracking progress. This article outlines the SB Guideline for the Neuropsychological Care of People with Spina Bifida from the 2018 Spina Bifida Association’s Fourth Edition of the Guidelines for the Care of People with Spina Bifida and acknowledges that further research in SB neurocognitive profiles is warranted.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The majority of behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) have been designed and targeted towards the general population (i.e., typically-developing individuals); thus, little is known about the use of BITs to aid those with special needs, such as youth with disabilities. The current study assessed adolescents and young adults with spina bifida (AYA-SB) for: 1) their technology usage, and 2) anticipated barriers to using technology to help manage their health. METHODS: AYA-SB completed a survey of their media and technology usage. A card sorting task that ranked and grouped anticipated barriers to using a mobile app to…manage health was also completed. Ranked means, standard deviations, and the number of times a barrier was discarded were used to interpret sample rankings. RESULTS: AYA-SB reported less frequent technology and media use than the general population. However, differences emerged by age, with young adults endorsing higher usage than their younger counterparts. Top concerns focused on usability, accessibility, safety, personal barriers due to lack of engagement, technological functioning, privacy, and efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: AYA-SB appear to be selective users of technology. It is therefore critical that the design of BITs address their concerns, specifically aiming to have high usability, accessibility, and engagement.
Keywords: Spina bifida, behavioral intervention technologies, access barriers, adolescents and young adults, technology use
Abstract: PURPOSE: Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is a common comorbidity of myelomeningocele (MMC), the most common and severe form of spina bifida. The National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR) is a research collaboration between the CDC and Spina Bifida Clinics. Fecal continence (continence) outcomes for common treatment modalities for NBD have not been described in a large sample of individuals with MMC. NSBPR patients with MMC and NBD were studied to determine variation in continence status and their ability to perform their treatment independently according to treatment modality and individual characteristics. METHODS: Continence was defined as <…1 episode of incontinence per month. Eleven common treatments were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were established diagnoses of both MMC and NBD, as well as age ⩾ 5 years (n = 3670). Chi-square or exact statistical tests were used for bivariate analyses. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of continence outcomes by age, sex, race/ethnicity, level of motor function, and insurance status. RESULTS: At total of 3670 members of the NSBPR met inclusion criteria between November 2013 and December 2017. Overall prevalence of continence was 45%. Prevalence ranged from 40–69% across different treatments. Among continent individuals, 60% achieved continence without surgery. Antegrade enemas were the most commonly used treatment and had the highest associated continence rate. Ability to carry out a treatment independently increased with age. Multivariable logistic regression showed significantly higher odds of continence among individuals aged ⩾ 12 years, female, non-Hispanic white, and with private insurance.