Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume 13, issue 3
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The Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (JPRM): An Interdisciplinary Approach is designed to parallel the multidisciplinary teams caring for children, adolescents and adults with childhood-onset physical disabilities and complex care needs worldwide. Published quarterly, topics include, and are not limited to, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina bifida, limb deficiency, muscular dystrophy, stroke, cancer, developmental delays, and rare disorders. Furthermore, the journal welcomes papers dedicated to pediatric rehabilitation from a global health perspective.
The aim of JPRM is to engage a diverse group of international experts with the goal of providing readers with comprehensive information regarding children and adolescents requiring rehabilitation. JPRM brings together specialists from medicine, nursing, psychology, social work, nutrition, child life, family centered care, and occupational, physical, and speech therapy. For manuscript submissions, authorship involving at least two different specialties is encouraged, although not required, to facilitate a transdisciplinary and collaborative approach. Manuscripts are blinded and peer reviewed including biostatistical analysis. Authors are invited to submit original research, systematic and scoping reviews, guidelines, protocols, care pathways, case reports, book reviews, commentaries, editorials, and dates for future conferences.
Abstract: PURPOSE: The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 43 million people resulting in over 1 million deaths. Approximately 2% of cases in the United States are children, and in most cases the child is either asymptomatic or has mild symptoms. However, some pediatric cases can present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C). Understanding the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management of MIS-C related to SARS-CoV-2 will help to streamline early diagnosis and treatment, particularly in pediatric patients with complex medical conditions. METHODS: This scoping review adopted methods from the Joanna Briggs…Institute (JBI) manual for evidence synthesis and preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. Primary studies of patients meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for MIS-C from December 31 st , 2019 to Oct 5 th , 2020 were identified using PubMed and Scopus. Articles were screened for eligibility, and data collection was conducted on those fulfilling inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Of 417 studies identified, 57 met inclusion criteria, accounting for 875 patients from 15 countries. Globally, 57% of children affected with MIS-C were males. The median age was 9 years old, ranging from 6 months to 21 years. Forty-five percent of the patients had underlying comorbidities including obesity and lung disease. Fever, conjunctivitis and GI symptoms were common. Most MIS-C patients had high biomarkers including troponin I, N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), D-dimer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cells (WBCs), interleukin 6 (IL-6), procalcitonin, and ferritin. The treatment for most patients included IVIG and inotropic support. CONCLUSION: MIS-C can be a unique and potentially life-threatening manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 in children and often requires medical intervention.
Abstract: Respiratory dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). In children and adults with CP, movement and physical function is always affected. Yet, many clinicians overlook potential for impaired movement and function of the diaphragm muscle (DIAm) in individuals with CP. Since individuals with pre-existing respiratory disorders are at greater risk for respiratory complications if they contract COVID-19, understanding potential risks to individuals with CP is important. In this review we present research on respiratory function and DIAm force generation in children with CP. We compare this clinical work to basic science research…investigating phrenic motor neuron and DIAm motor unit dysfunction in an animal model with CP symptoms, the spa mouse. Finally, we integrate the clinical and basic science work in respiratory function in CP, discussing potential for individuals with CP to have severe respiratory symptoms from COVID-19.
Keywords: Diaphragm, cerebral palsy, respiratory, motor neuron, COVID-19
Abstract: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic triggered wide scale implementation of telemedicine in the United States. The government response, Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, permitted loosening of existing restrictions on telemedicine enabling its rapid incorporation into the delivery of medical care for children and adults. Prior to COVID-19, few pediatric physiatrists had opportunities to access high fidelity telemedicine platforms to provide health care for patients with special needs, mobility impairments, developmental delays, neuromuscular disorders or other complex medical conditions. This literature review will explore how telemedicine can optimize health care delivery options for pediatric physiatrists in various inpatient and…outpatient settings such as consultations, acute inpatient units, outpatient clinics and long-term care facilities. Detailed analysis of the current research in telemedicine applications as well as a critical review of the limitations and barriers for its use offers a plethora of opportunities for enhancement of continuity and coordination of care. Telemedicine may decrease healthcare disparities and increase access of care for children with special needs. Additional research is needed to assess the efficacy of telemedicine when addressing complex medical conditions in children.
Keywords: Telemedicine, physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), pediatric rehabilitation medicine (PRM), pediatric physiatrist, COVID-19, CARES Act, children with special needs
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant health impact around the world. In the United States, there has been a difference in infection and death rates for Black Americans and other marginalized groups as compared to White Americans. Although children do not seem to be suffering infection, morbidity and mortality to the same degree as adults, there is concern that COVID-19 could have a disparate impact on children with acquired or congenital disabilities when analyzed through the lens of race and equity. The possibility that there could be a differential effect on rehabilitation services relates to: the risk of familial/parental…exposure leading to secondary infection, the negative economic impact of public health measures required to control disease spread, and the pre-existing social factors that impact access to healthcare. Finally, the psychosocial stresses imposed by COVID-19 inflame risk factors for non-accidental injury, which could lead to an increased need for pediatric rehabilitation services in vulnerable populations. It is critical that individual providers, as well as the health systems in which they practice, actively focus on mitigating personal and systemic causes of racial and ethnic health outcome disparities. These efforts need to move beyond a race neutral construct to specifically anti-racist activity.
Keywords: Health disparities, equity, coronavirus, COVID-19, pediatrics, marginalized population, disability, rehabilitation, function, Black children, Latino children, Native American children
Abstract: In the unprecedented disruption and social isolation of the COVID-19 pandemic, families around the world are faced with questions of how their children can thrive in these conditions. On top of the ubiquitous challenges for all children, this public health crisis imparts unique difficulties for children with special health needs. We identify children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as being particularly vulnerable to negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we examine why children with ASD are uniquely vulnerable, recommend strategies to mitigate these stressors for children with ASD and their parents, explore the potential challenges of reintegration…into society as conditions improve, and examine the obligations of healthcare and community stakeholders to support these families.
Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, COVID-19 pandemic, social isolation, childcare strategies
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated many changes in medicine including the transition from providing care in person to providing care via technology enabled telemedicine. The benefits of telemedicine visits with a Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) provider, also known as telerehabilitation medicine visits, are numerous. Telerehabilitation medicine provides an opportunity to deliver timely, patient and family-centric rehabilitation care while maintaining physical distance and reducing potential COVID-19 exposure for our patients, their caregivers and medical providers. Telerehabilitation medicine also allows for access to PRM care in rural areas or areas without medical specialty, virtual in-home equipment evaluation, and reduced travel burden. Because…of these and many other benefits, telerehabilitation medicine will likely become part of our ongoing model of care if barriers to telemedicine continue to be lowered or removed. This paper is intended to establish a foundation for pediatric telerehabilitation medicine visit efficiency and effectiveness in our current environment and into the future.
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is exacerbating longstanding challenges facing children with tracheostomies and their families. Myriad ethical concerns arising in the long-term care of children with tracheostomies during the COVID-19 pandemic revolve around inadequate access to care, healthcare resources, and rehabilitation services. Marginalized communities such as those from Black and Hispanic origins face disproportionate chronic illness because of racial and other underlying disparities. In this paper, we describe how these disparities also present challenges to children who are technology-dependent, such as those with tracheostomies and discuss the emerging ethical discourse regarding healthcare and resource access for this population during the pandemic.
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a challenge to healthcare systems around the world. Within pediatric rehabilitation medicine, management of intrathecal baclofen has been particularly challenging. This editorial reviews how programs in the US and Canada coped with the quickly changing healthcare environment and how we can learn from this pandemic to be prepared for future crises.
Keywords: Intrathecal baclofen, COVID-19, risk of exposure, pump