Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume 13, issue 2
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Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine: An Interdisciplinary Approach is an international journal designed to parallel the multi-disciplinary team approach of caring for a child with an acute or chronic disease. The issues will primarily be themed and broad in scope including, but not be limited to cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina-bifida, amputation, muscular dystrophies of all types, stroke, cancer, mental retardation, developmental delays, and others.
The aim is to include a wide range of experts who care for children with the above diagnosis. Authorship by two different disciplines is requested though not required to encourage an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach. The goal is for the reader to obtain not just the medical perspective, but also nursing, occupational, physical and speech therapy, psychology, home care, etc., in providing the most comprehensive care for children. Manuscripts will be blinded and peer reviewed with appropriate feedback. Statistical analysis will be reviewed by the biostatistician. Readers are encouraged to submit and or suggest case reviews, commentaries, editorials, original research, conference schedules, or reviews.
Abstract: Botulinum Toxin (BoNT) is widely used to treat hypertonia in pediatric patients. Although serious adverse events (AEs) occur infrequently, they can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. This paper will discuss potential safety risks that may affect outcomes, medical comorbidities, medication dosing, targeting techniques, and muscle morphology. It is the responsibility of the physician to discuss risks and benefits regarding the use of BoNT and mitigate risks of AEs while maximizing the effectiveness of the medication.
Abstract: Botulinum toxins (BoNT) are a standard of care for spasticity management of children with a variety of neuromuscular (NM) conditions. BoNT relaxes skeletal muscles by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine from the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). As part of their training physiatrist become proficient in the targeted injections of BoNT into affected skeletal musculature. While the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of BoNT are well characterized, there is limited literature on the clinical impact that varying the volume of diluent that a toxin is reconstituted within. In theory, injection of a larger volume of dilute BoNT would allow for a larger spread affect…reaching more distant NMJs; the reverse is also be true. Dilution volume of BoNT injections in children produces some unique situations due to their low weight, smaller muscle bulk, an increased relative risk of spread to surrounding structures, and novel differences in concentration of NMJ in immature muscle. Some of these factors may act as guiding principles that providers can use when adjusting from their standard BoNT dilutional practices. Although, there are recommended dosing strategies available each child’s spasticity pattern represents a unique situation and providers must be allowed flexibility to think creatively about dilution strategies for BoNT injections.
Abstract: Botulinum toxin is frequently used as a therapeutic for a variety of non-FDA approved indications in children. This narrative literature review explores three off-label uses of botulinum toxin in pediatric conditions including congenital muscular torticollis, spastic trismus, and neonatal brachial plexus palsy. While more research is needed to establish treatment, dosing and localization guidelines for the use of botulinum toxin in these commonly treated conditions, available evidence is discussed.