Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine - Volume 11, issue 1
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Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine: An Interdisciplinary Approach is an international journal designed to parallel the multi-disciplinary team approach of caring for a child with an acute or chronic disease. The issues will primarily be themed and broad in scope including, but not be limited to cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, spina-bifida, amputation, muscular dystrophies of all types, stroke, cancer, mental retardation, developmental delays, and others.
The aim is to include a wide range of experts who care for children with the above diagnosis. Authorship by two different disciplines is requested though not required to encourage an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach. The goal is for the reader to obtain not just the medical perspective, but also nursing, occupational, physical and speech therapy, psychology, home care, etc., in providing the most comprehensive care for children. Manuscripts will be blinded and peer reviewed with appropriate feedback. Statistical analysis will be reviewed by the biostatistician. Readers are encouraged to submit and or suggest case reviews, commentaries, editorials, original research, conference schedules, or reviews.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Preschool-aged children have a high rate of traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Anecdotally, caregivers of young children describe symptoms not typically associated with TBI. The objective of this study was to preliminarily describe symptoms reported following TBI in an outpatient sample of preschool-aged children. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was completed of the first specialty clinic visit by 28 children ages 3 through 5 years with TBI (32% mild, 50% moderate, 18% severe) to identify post-injury symptoms elicited by caregiver interview including querying of symptoms listed on the Acute Concussion Evaluation (ACE) plus an open-ended request to…describe any other symptoms. RESULTS: Visits occurred on average 38 days post-injury. Caregivers endorsed typical post-concussive symptoms, with headache being most common. In addition, caregivers described other symptoms not captured by the ACE which were grouped into the following categories: Appetite Changes, Behavioral Dysregulation, Decreased Engagement, Disrupted Sleep, Enuresis, Increased Dependence, and Stomachaches. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers of preschool-aged children with TBI endorse that young children experience many typical post-concussive symptoms but also a range of other symptoms which may not be typically associated with TBI. Additional work is needed to determine whether specialized evaluation tools and educational materials may be useful for this age group.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To describe language-based neuropsychological outcomes following brain injury in two pediatric populations commonly treated in rehabilitation settings, namely severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) and stroke secondary to arteriovenous malformation (AVM). METHODS: Investigated were children between the ages of 6 and 16 who were admitted to a brain injury rehabilitation program in a pediatric rehabilitation hospital and who were diagnosed with a left-sided sTBI (n = 16; mean age = 13.2) or a left-hemispheric stroke secondary to AVM (n = 16, mean age…= 10.7). Groups were compared on demographic information, as well as general cognitive and language-based neuropsychological measures, controlling for age. RESULTS: Children in the AVM group presented with greater deficits, at trend levels, relative to the sTBI group on measures of working memory, verbal fluency, and an aphasia screening tool. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents an initial step in understanding the language-based neuropsychological outcomes of children diagnosed with sTBI compared to those with stroke secondary to AVM, which will help inform the rehabilitation process. With this knowledge, clinicians, families, and educators will be better equipped to provide informed individual rehabilitation programs, recommendations, and education for children and adolescents with brain injuries.
Abstract: PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between clinic-based walking capacity measures and community-based walking activity in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional cohort was employed at tertiary care children’s hospital; n = 128, ages 2–9 years, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) I–III. Walking capacity was captured with 1- and 6-minute walk tests (1MWT, 6MWT), Gross Motor Function Measure-walk/run/jump score (GMFM-E), and Activity Scale for Kids performance version (ASKp-30). Walking activity performance in the community was quantified by StepWatch (SW). RESULTS: Moderate…correlations were documented for 6MWT to SW outputs of walking level, moderate high intensity, 60-minute peak and peak activity index (r = 0.55–0.58, p < 0.01). GMFM-E correlated with all SW outputs (r = 0.55–0.69, p < 0.01) except 1-minute peak walking rate. Per regression modeling, GMFM-E was associated with walking level and intensity (p < 0.02) and 6MWT related to high intensity walking (p < 0.4, R= 2 0.28–0.48). CONCLUSION: 6MWT and GMFM-E have the strongest associations with level, amount and intensity of walking in daily life. Results suggest that the 6MWT and GMFM-E can be employed to estimate community walking activity in ambulatory children with CP. Future studies should focus on environmental and personal factors that influence community walking performance.
Abstract: PURPOSE: Snoezelen is an environment that provides sensory stimulation to individuals in health care and rehabilitative settings. With the presentation of various instruments and materials, individuals can encounter a range of sensory experiences including visual, tactile, and auditory with the purpose of inducing relaxation and restoration. Little is known about how children and adolescents experience this form of sensory stimulation, particularly those in complex continuing care who may have limited verbal and mobility capacity. METHODS: This pilot study examined autonomic physiological responses and observational data on five children and adolescents in complex continuing care within a…large rehabilitation hospital. Responses to Snoezelen and watching television were compared against baseline data collected during pre-intervention phases. RESULTS: Using a single-subject design, this preliminary study found that individual participant responses varied considerably. Four of the five participants exhibited significant changes between sessions on one or two distinct physiological measures. The authors call on additional studies that apply unique and multiple methods capable of accessing the preferences of children and adolescent in rehabilitative care. CONCLUSIONS: As an outcome, contributions to evidence-based practice can be made while supporting children’s participation rights in health care decision making.
Abstract: Pediatric Rehabilitation therapists have always worked using a variety of off-the-shelf or custom-made objects and devices, more recently including computer based systems. These Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions vary widely in complexity, from easy-to-use interactive videogame consoles originally intended for entertainment purposes to sophisticated systems specifically developed for rehabilitation. This paper describes the principles underlying an innovative “Pediatric Rehabilitation 2.0” approach, based on the combination of suitable ICT solutions and traditional rehabilitation, which has been progressively refined while building up and using a computer-assisted rehabilitation laboratory. These principles are thus summarized in the acronym EPIQ, to account for…the terms Ecological, Personalized, Interactive and Quantitative. The paper also presents the laboratory, which has been designed to meet the children’s rehabilitation needs and to empower therapists in their work. The laboratory is equipped with commercial hardware and specially developed software called VITAMIN: a virtual reality platform for motor and cognitive rehabilitation.
Abstract: A 12 year-old female presented to the emergency department with a right hemiparesis, headache, and neck pain. Initial neural imaging studies were unremarkable. However, a repeat MRI of the cervical spine during her acute hospitalization showed an acute spinal infarct. Neurological workup was consistent with fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) as the etiology. After several weeks of intensive inpatient rehabilitation, the patient demonstrated remarkable functional progress. This case report reviews the comprehensive pediatric literature on FCE with focus on the mechanism of injury, role of imaging studies, treatment options and prognosis. Awareness of the typical clinical history, as well as the signs…and symptoms characteristic of FCE will improve the identification of this rare cause of abrupt weakness and potentially facilitate functional recovery.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate evidence supporting physical and occupational therapy interventions used to improve sensory and motor outcomes for children 0–6 years with central hypotonia. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched from 1996 to March 2017. Level of evidence and study conduct was evaluated using American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine criteria. Traffic lighting classification identified interventions that were green (proven effective), yellow (possibly effective) or red (proven ineffective or contraindicated). RESULTS: Thirty-seven articles were included. Nine studies measured orthotic interventions while four distinct studies published over nine articles measured treadmill interventions.…Remaining studies measured impact of compression garments, massage, motor and sensori-motor interventions, positioning and mobility interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Green light evidence supports treadmill training (to promote ambulation and gait characteristics) and massage (to positively affect muscle tone, motor development and use of vision) for infants with Down syndrome. These interventions are considered Yellow (possibly effective) for other populations. Green light evidence supports impact of orthoses on foot alignment for ambulatory children with hypotonia, while impact on gait characteristics is Yellow light and motor development may be negatively impacted (Red light) in pre-ambulatory children. All other interventions rated Yellow (possibly effective) and therapists should monitor using sensitive outcome measures.
Keywords: Congenital hypotonia, hypotonic, children