Journal of Pediatric Neuroradiology - Volume 2, issue 1
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Journal of Pediatric Neuroradiology is an English multidisciplinary peer-reviewed international journal providing a forum for the publication of papers on all topics related to child neuroradiology including diagnostic, functional and therapeutic imaging of the brain, head, neck, spine; congenital central nervous system malformations; pediatric ophthalmologic and otorhinolaryngologic imaging.
Journal of Pediatric Neuroradiology provides an in-depth update on new subjects, and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in neuroradiological diagnosis and treatment in childhood.
Journal of Pediatric Neuroradiology encourages submissions from all authors throughout the world.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, short report, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor, and book reviews. The aim of the journal is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of child neuroradiology.
Abstract: The objective of this article is to provide some basic concepts of the magnetic resonance techniques and approaches cited in articles included this special issue focusing on white matter for the Journal of Pediatric Neuroradiology.
Keywords: Relaxometry, voxel based morphometry, magnetization transfer imaging, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging
Abstract: Understanding the pathophysiology, imaging and correlative preterm outcome of white matter ischemic injury is important to improve neonatal clinical practices and to support preventative therapies. This article will focus on these topics in an attempt to provide greater understanding of premature white matter disease in this fragile age group.
Keywords: Prematurity, oligodendrocytes, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Abstract: The term leukodystrophy reflects diseases that are both progressive and genetically determined arising from a gene defect that manages production or metabolism of exclusively one component of myelin. These defects cause imperfect growth, development or maintenance of myelin sheaths. The magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopic features of six primary leukodystrophies are described and illustrated in this review. This includes Alexander disease, Canavan’s disease, Childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination, Leukoencephalopathy with brain-stem and spinal cord involvement and elevated white matter lactate, Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts, and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease.
Keywords: Brain, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, leukodystrophy, white matter disease, neuron, axons, myelin
Abstract: Lysosomes are organelles within a cell responsible for breaking down waste materials and cellular debris. There are approximately forty known inherited disorders with primary lysosomal defects affecting the metabolism of lipids, glycoproteins, and mucopolysaccharides. Peroxisomes are organelles within a cell that are responsible for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids (plasmalogens), cholesterol, and bile acids, conversion of amino acids into glucose, oxidation of fatty acids, reduction of hydrogen peroxide by catalases, and prevention of excess oxalate synthesis. Lysosomal and peroxisomal disorders can produce leukodystrophies. Magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide important information in evaluating patients with concern…for a possible inherited metabolic disorder, initially by narrowing the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected leukodystrophies and subsequently by monitoring disease progression. Lysosomal and peroxisomal disorders can be challenging, as some phenotypes may represent residual cellular activity of the organelle and initially present with normal imaging. However, the goal of the authors in this article is to provide an overview of known lysosomal and peroxisomal disorders producing leukodystrophies. In this article, we discuss the imaging features of three lysosomal disorders and four peroxisomal disorders, respectively, which can also be classified as leukodystrophies.
Keywords: Brain, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, leukodystrophy, white matter disease, neurons, axons, myelin, organelle, lysosome, peroxisome
Abstract: Acquired central nervous system demyelinating disease is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to neurologic morbidity in the pediatric population. Recent consensus definitions of the spectrum of acquired demyelinating disorders as well as important discoveries in immunology and imaging have produced an improved understanding of these conditions. Neuroimaging plays a central role in the accurate diagnosis, follow-up, and research efforts in this patient population. A review of the imaging spectrum of acquired demyelinating disease in children is provided, based upon current consensus definitions, along with imaging recommendations, differential diagnostic considerations, and a brief summary of clinical presentations and treatment options.
Abstract: This article discusses some of the most commonly encountered compounds producing toxic leukoencephalopathies in infants, children and adolescents: opioids, methanol, ethylene glycol, carbon monoxide, and inhalants such as toluene, medications including methotrexate, cyclosporine, and tacrolimus. Toxic effects on white matter can produce a varied appearance on neuroimaging. The diagnosis of toxic leukoencephalopathies can be made by careful attention to the history, presentation, and neuroradiological findings.
Abstract: White matter (WM) injury is increasingly recognized as central to the impact on the quality of life of patients with all severity levels of traumatic brain injury. It can be the determinant of death or persistent disability. This article reviews the characteristics of the developing brain in relation to trauma, the primary and secondary phases of WM injury, and advanced magnetic resonance techniques in the evaluation of brain trauma. Special emphasis is placed on non-accidental trauma and sports-related WM injury, respectively.
Keywords: Diffuse axonal injury, non-accidental trauma, sports-related white matter injury, diffusion tensor imaging, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Abstract: This article reviews the literature for neuroimaging features found in the pediatric population associated with infectious processes, specifically those with bacterial, fungal and parasitic origins. Magnetic resonance imaging is performed in patients with infectious and inflammatory disorders to further characterize involvement, especially within the white matter, assess for ischemia or poor response to pharmacologic therapy in a worsening clinical presentation, and assess for complications.
Abstract: This article reviews the reports of white matter abnormalities in several psychiatric disorders. Volumetric differences found by voxel-based morphometry or region-of-interest analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies are described. Abnormalities in the diffusion metrics, primarily fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity, from diffusion tensor imaging studies are also summarized. The consensus is that there are widespread abnormalities in white matter in psychiatric disorders, but no particular region has been identified as specific to any one disease. Instead, these diseases seem to impact commonly the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus, as well as several other connecting tracts. Neuroimaging has provided…significant insights into the aberrant white matter in these diseases, but more work is required to understand the timing, progression, and underlying pathophysiology of these abnormalities.
Keywords: White matter, voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging, psychiatric disorders, schizophrenia, depression, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use