Journal of Pediatric Neurology - Volume 6, issue 1
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Journal of Pediatric Neurology is an English multidisciplinary peer-reviewed medical journal publishing articles in the fields of child neurology, pediatric neurosurgery, pediatric neuroradiology, child psychiatry and pediatric neuroscience.
Journal of Pediatric Neurology encourages submissions from authors throughout the world. The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews. The aim of the journal is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric neurology.
Abstract: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by an encephalopathy, multifocal grey matter and white matter involvement. Pediatric high-grade gliomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors accounting for 15–20% of all pediatric brain tumors. We describe two children who were incorrectly diagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis initially, but subsequently found to have glioblastoma multiforme. The cases would exemplify the diagnostic difficulties in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
Abstract: Although abnormal cerebrospinal fluid findings similar to aseptic meningitis are reported in up to 80% infants with congenital syphilis, overt symptomatic meningeal syphilis is quite a rare presentation, especially at an early age. We report a neonate who presented at 60 hours of life with irritability, poor activity, seizures and bulging fontanel. He was confirmed to have acute syphilitic meningitis.
Abstract: We present a case of a 4-month-old girl with a history of a huge axillary cystic hygroma since birth, with elective surgical resection of the lesion and subsequent development of infection at the surgery site. During hospitalization for the infection, she developed seizures, a bulging fontanelle, increased head circumference, and widely separated cranial sutures. Brain imaging demonstrated new, large, bilateral subdural fluid collections with membrane enhancement around the left-sided collection. She was managed by…subdural tap, bilateral craniotomy, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and subduroperitoneal shunt insertion. Ultimately, she had complete recovery without complications. This case adds to the spectrum of intracranial conditions that have been associated with cystic hygroma.
Abstract: A premature infant with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia is presented in this study. Firstly ventriculosubgaleal shunt surgery was performed. Then, ventriculosubgaleal shunt was converted to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Postoperative courses of both ventriculosubgaleal shunt surgery and ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery were uneventful. This illustrative case suggests that ventriculosubgaleal shunt can be an effective method for treating posthemorrhagic hydrocephaus associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Abstract: Arsenic poisoning has multiple causes including exposure to pesticides, rodenticides, paints, pigments, alloys and consumption of water contaminated with arsenic. In India, traditional home made, herbal remedies are widely consumed to enhance potency and vitality, and they are often contaminated with toxic ingredients, including arsenic. We report a case of chronic arsenic poisoning, due to prolonged consumption of such a homemade vitaliser that contained arsenic as chief ingredient. Our patient presented with…polyneuropathy and cutaneous lesions that recovered significantly with dimercaprol therapy, despite delayed diagnosis.
Keywords: Arsenic, polyneuropathy, home made-vitaliser, Mees' line, quadriparesis
Abstract: Combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria is a very rare disease caused by a defect in the synthesis of two cofactors in cobalamin dependent reactions, i.e. adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin, active forms of vitamin B12. Early onset disease consists of neurological, hematological and gastrointestinal abnormalities seen in the first year of life and some minor face abnormalities (long philtrum, wide forehead, big and low set ears, long face). Here we report a 4-month-old male with failure to thrive,…pancytopenia and neurological disturbance.
Abstract: Intracranial aneurysms are extremely uncommon in children (⩽ 18 years old) and their incidence increases with age. Their epidemiology is poorly understood and certain features like location, morphology and presentation make them unique in comparison to adults. The internal carotid artery bifurcation is the most frequent site for aneurysm in this age group. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with history of sudden unconsciousness followed by generalized tonic clonic seizures. The computerized…tomography scan revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage with blood seen in the left Sylvian fissure, along tentorium cerebelli and posterior falx. There was focal intracerebral hematoma in the left temporal lobe abutting the Sylvian fissure and blood could also be seen in the fourth, third and both lateral ventricles with mild ventriculomegaly. The digital subtraction angiography revealed a large intracranial aneurysm arising from the left proximal anterior cerebral artery just distal to left internal carotid artery bifurcation. The aneurysm was clipped using standard microsurgical techniques. The child did well postoperatively. Intracranial aneurysms are rare in childhood and proximal artery anterior cerebral artery aneurysms are amongst the rarer sites. This report highlights one such rare case.
Abstract: Adrenoleukodystrophy is a neurodegenerative disease with X-linked recessive inheritance, which rapidly leads to neurological dysfunctions in childhood. It could only be treated by bone marrow transplantation at early stage. Here we report a case of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy who was admitted to our hospital with status epilepticus and subclinical adrenal insufficiency. A 13-year-old boy, who had initially presented to a local hospital with seizures, was transferred to our hospital upon having generalized tonic-clonic…seizures, which were followed by focal seizures. He had been introverted and amnesiac for the previous 2 months; hence, he had been receiving medication for major depression. However, his clinical condition worsened despite the medication. Although the patient lacked typical symptoms, he was diagnosed as having adrenoleukodystrophy upon detection of hyperintense lesions in occipitoparietal white matter by brain magnetic resonance imaging and increased serum very long chain fatty acid concentrations. Thus, we would like to emphasize the importance of awareness of physicians, particularly the pediatricians, neurologists and psychiatrists for clinical and laboratory characteristics of adrenoleukodystrophy.
Keywords: Adrenoleukodystrophy, adolescent, magnetic resonance imaging, adrenal insufficiency