Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Volume 9, issue 3
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Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal, publishing articles in the field of child infectious diseases. The journal provides an in-depth update on new subjects and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in diagnosis and treatment of childhood infectious diseases.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews.
The aim of the
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric infectious diseases.
Abstract: The impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is enormous, not only through increased health care costs, but also loss of income and loss of lives. As such, antimicrobial resistance is not only a medical issue, but also a social and economic one. In addition, the emergence of AMR does not respect borders, man-made or between animal species, therefore requiring an international effort and a comprehensive or "One Health" approach . This paper describes the efforts that are…being taken at WHO Regional Office for Europe to support countries in containing antibiotic resistance, based on the 7 strategic objectives of the WHO European strategic action plan on antibiotic resistance.
Keywords: National coordination of AMR, AMR surveillance, CAESAR, rational use of antibiotics, infection prevention and control (IPC), one health, innovation, awareness
Abstract: Data on antimicrobial resistance and prescribing in children are sparse in spite of the high consumption in this population. In order to bridge this gap, the Antimicrobial Resistance and Prescribing in European Children project (ARPEC), was launched in 2010. Through ARPEC data on antimicrobial prescribing were collected from over 200 hospitals and primary care sources, mostly in Europe. Antimicrobial resistance patterns for a number of sentinel pathogens were described and existing guidelines on antimicrobial prescribing…assembled. Finally an education tool to improve prescribing in paediatrics was set up. The main legacy of ARPEC has been the fostering of successful collaborations between paediatricians across Europe and beyond, this has resulted into GARPEC, the global side of ARPEC, aimed not only at benchmarking antimicrobial resistance and prescribing worldwide but also at developing strategies to preserve antimicrobials in the face of increasing resistance.
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, paediatrics, antimicrobial prescribing, Europe
Abstract: Differences in antibiotic consumption are not seen only in different countries but also within countries. We retrospectively (2000–2012) analyzed the consumption of antibiotics in children in 9 regions in Slovenia and tried to find out the determinants of regional variation in the year 2006 and 2009. For each year we saw a 1.5 fold (range 1.2–1.8) difference between the regions with the lowest and the highest total antibiotic consumption. The interregional use of different antibiotic classes…varied up to 8.5-fold. No correlation between antibiotic consumption and socioeconomic determinants was found. Very high and high correlation was found between antibiotic consumption and incidence of common acute respiratory tract infections like upper respiratory tract infections, sore throat, acute laryngitis/tracheitis and acute bronchitis. In 2006 there was a correlation between antibiotic use, urinary tract infections and acute otitis media. High overall consumption of antibiotics especially penicillins was associated with higher resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin. Regional variation in antibiotic use and its pattern are seen also in a small country as Slovenia and indicate the need for improvement.
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance program was developed by Macedonian Ministry of Health in order to improve and expand surveillance of antibiotic use and resistance. As a part of Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children or ARPEC study, a point prevalence survey was conducted at General Hospital "Borka Taleski" in Prilep. To present the data from the first point prevalence survey of neonatal and pediatric antibiotic prescribing in secondary care hospital in Macedonia, describe the current antimicrobial prescribing…practices at this institution and gather baseline data for future interventions to improve the antimicrobial use. A point prevalence survey was conducted within the pediatric and neonatal departments. Twenty three patients were surveyed: 12 in the pediatric department and 11 in the neonatal unit. 92% of pediatric patients were treated with antibiotics compared with an average of 36% in pediatric departments in other European countries (p < 0.05). 18% of hospitalized neonates were treated with antibiotic compared with 8% in other European neonatal departments (p < 0.05). Assessment of current antibiotic use in general hospitals is very important for further work on antibiotic prescribing.
Keywords: Point prevalence survey, antibiotic resistance, general hospital
Abstract: Point prevalence surveys (PPS) have been used to document antimicrobial use in healthcare organizations. Antimicrobial resistance is a global concern, more so for developing countries like India, where the burden of antimicrobial resistance and infectious diseases are very high. A web based PPS developed by University of Antwerp, Belgium for the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) project was used to enter data from pediatric and neonatal wards and intensive care units (ICU) from…8 centers across India. All patients who were receiving systemic antibacterial treatments on the day of the survey inclusive of antibacterial prophylaxis for surgery were included. 195 patients were surveyed across India: 105 (54%) medical and 90 (46%) surgical. 192 (98%) patients received multiple antimicrobials out of which 187 (95%) were given parenterally. Empirical antimicrobials were prescribed in 138 (71%) patients and targeted therapy in 57 (29%). The commonest infections for which antimicrobials were prescribed were healthcare associated infections 180 (41.76%) followed by surgical prophylaxis 90 (21%) and community acquired infections 84 (18%). Antimicrobials usage was maximal in ICUs. More than a single dose (5.6%) for more than a day (86.7%) was used for surgical prophylaxis. The Web based PPS suggests widespread antibiotic usage among pediatric and neonatal patients in selected tertiary Indian hospitals and underscores the need for antibiotic stewardship in order to promote rational and evidence based practice to limit the emergence of antibiotic resistant microbes.
Keywords: Point prevalence surveys, antimicrobial resistance, prophylaxis
Abstract: In Constanta during the summer hospital admission of children especially with diarrheal diseases is increased because of the influx of tourists. We determine retrospectively the antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli strains isolated from a pediatric population hospitalized during 2012 at Constanta Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital. Microbiology samples were inoculated on selective media (Blood Agar and Drigalscki Lactose Agar) and incubated at 37°, for 16 h, and subsequently on average multitest media (MIU,…TSI, and Simmons). For the final identification we used API 20E Biomerieux tests. During 2012 we isolated 112 strains of E. coli – 85 strains from stool, 16 from urine, 10 from gastric fluid, 8 from throat, and 3 from other secretions. All E. coli strains isolated from our patients were E. coli enteropathogens. Male: Female ratio was 1:1.33. Median age was 5.5 years (range from 3 months – 17.4 years). The antibiotic sensitivity of E. coli revealed a low sensitivity to ampicillin (19.6%) sensitivity was to Carbapenems (93%) hospitalized at Constanta Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital during 2012 intestinal tract infections were the most frequent, followed by urinary tract infections. Antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli was low to ampicillin, and tetracycline, while the majority of E. coli strains were sensitive to carbapenems.