Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Volume 6, issue 4
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Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal, publishing articles in the field of child infectious diseases. The journal provides an in-depth update on new subjects and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in diagnosis and treatment of childhood infectious diseases.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews.
The aim of the
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric infectious diseases.
Abstract: This study aimed to phenotypically characterize the population of Candida genus yeasts in the oral cavity of infants receiving artificial feeding and breastfeeding from their breasts of the mothers. The presence of Candida spp was detected in 35% of the 157 infants. These were distributed into three groups: exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), mixed (MF) and artificial feeding (AF); and frequency was verified according to two factors: isolation of Candida spp in the oral cavity of infants receiving…EBF and MF (35.0%) and AF (67.2%) (p < 0.005); and those using bottles (67.3%) or breast alone (32.0%). Lactating women (122 mothers of newborns in EBF and MF) were also studied, together with 30 nonlactating control women; the frequency of in vitro isolation of Candida spp from the breasts was 32.8% and 13.3%, respectively. In both the oral cavity of infants and breasts of lactating women, Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated yeast. An association between the use of pacifiers and oral colonization by Candida spp was verified. Of the 40 infants who used pacifiers, colonization was identified in 70.0%. Other predisposing factors were evaluated, oral hygiene and infants who received kisses on the lips, and both showed a statistically significant difference, p < 0.01 and p < 0.02, respectively. In infants, the use of breast pads proved to be a predisposing factor (OR=2.4) for colonization and infection of the breasts by Candida spp. In comparisons of the phenotypic identities of Candida spp isolated in the oral cavity of infants with those isolated from the breasts of their mothers, a similarity of 69.2% was determined.
Keywords: Oral candidiasis, breast candidiasis, breastfeeding
Abstract: Tuberculosis is the most common communicable disease worldwide. In this era of immune-compromising disease like acquired immune deficiency syndrome, it is necessary to have knowledge of the different presenting features of various rare manifestation of tuberculosis. Young individuals are more prone to such lesion because lack of immunity, close grouping with infected patients and the general increased chances of varying presentation in such patients. This study groups together rare presentation of extra pulmonary…tuberculosis of the head and neck region in an effort to increase the recognition of this disease.
Keywords: Extra pulmonary tuberculosis, primary, head, neck, pediatric
Abstract: During the years 1999 through 2008 middle ear fluid (MEF) and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) samples were obtained from Costa Rican children with otitis media (OM). Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified and serotyped according to standard procedures. A total of 1,389 MEF isolates were collected, of which 353 (25%) were S. pneumoniae. Serotyping was performed in 286/353 (81%) isolates, of which 40 (14%) were serogroup 6: serotype 6A (10/40; 25%), 6B (27/40; 67%) and 6C (3/40; 8%). Among 755…NP/OP S. pneumoniae isolated, 537 (71%) were serotyped and serogroup 6 was identified in 112 (21%) isolates: 6A (24/112; 21%), 6B (78/112; 70%), and 6C (10/112; 9%). Twenty percent, 86% and 0% of serotypes 6A, 6B and 6C isolated from the MEF, respectively, were penicillin non-susceptible (MIC ⩾ 0.06 μg/mL) and among the NP/OP isolates, 25%, 17.9% and 10%, respectively, were penicillin non-susceptible. Our results show that in Costa Rican children with OM, S. pneumoniae serotype 6C is an infrequent cause of OM and is sporadically found in NP/OP samples.
Abstract: Typhoid fever is a major public health problem globally; the greater burden however occurs in the developing countries because of lack of potable water and proper waste management. The disease is associated with a high mortality rate especially in those with enteric perforation or intestinal hemorrhage. The goal of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory factors that predicts the development of enteric perforation in children with typhoid fever. This study was a retrospective…case-control analysis of children admitted for typhoid fever with or without enteric perforation over a three – year period in a newly established teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria. Forty-seven children with typhoid fever and enteric perforation (cases) were compared with 94 controls (those with typhoid fever but without enteric perforation). Multivariate analysis using logistic regression was applied to all the factors that were initially significantly associated with enteric perforation. Male sex (Odd Ratio, OR=3.10, p=0.003); inadequate treatment (OR=3.03, p< 0.001); short duration of illness (OR=2.36, p=0.030); neutrophilia (OR =2.92, p=0.013) and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (OR=1.07, p=0.041) were found to have independently contributed to development of perforation in children with typhoid fever. This study has attempted to outline the factors that may predict typhoid ileal perforation in children, thereby helping in recognition of high risk cases and drawing up of screening tool to facilitate effective and prompt management.
Abstract: Pediatric patients suffering from independent or concomitant influenza A (H1N1) and Bordetella pertussis infections pose a diagnostic dilemma and may benefit from time-sensitive treatment. We report a case of influenza A (H1N1) and B. Pertussis co-infection in a previously healthy 28 day-old infant.
Abstract: Leuconostoc sepsis is more commonly described in extreme of ages with risk factors of infection such as prematurity, individuals with gastrointestinal processes, needing parenteral nutrition, carrying central venous catheters, prolonged antibiotic therapy and immunosuppression. We report the case of a previously healthy 22 days old female with no risk factors that developed Leuconostoc sepsis.
Abstract: Intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) is a rare infection in children. It is usually associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal abnormalities. Spastic paraparesis is the predominant clinical presentation. We report a child of ISCA who presented with acute flaccid paralysis of both lower limbs, an unusual presentation and yet showed significant neurological improvement.
Abstract: Kawasaki disease (KD) is rare in neonates, who have fewer cardinal diagnostic features, potentially contributing to delayed diagnosis and worse outcome. We describe two infants who developed features consistent with incomplete KD in the first three weeks of life, who are amongst the youngest ever reported. The suggestive clinical features and lack of alternative aetiology prompted treatment of KD, with excellent response and no coronary artery sequelae. Current diagnostic guidelines are recognized to be relatively…insensitive in infants. KD should be considered in infants with prolonged fever, irrespective of other clinical features.
Abstract: Hemophagocytosis syndrome secondary to visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is rare. The diagnosis is likely to be missed because of its clinical presentation similar to VL. Because Leishmaniasis is endemic in many states of India, primary treating physicians needs to be sensitized about the existence of this potentially fatal but treatable entity. Further, it is important to differentiate infection associated reactive hemophagocytosis syndrome (RHS) from primary hemophagocytosis to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful cytotoxic…therapy in infection associated hemophagocytosis. In this report, a young boy who developed accelerated RHS secondary to VL is presented. He succumbed to acute haematological complications of RHS while undergoing procedures for establishing the diagnosis of his primary illness.
Keywords: Hemophagocytosis syndrome, visceral leishmaniasis, children