Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Volume 4, issue 4
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Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal, publishing articles in the field of child infectious diseases. The journal provides an in-depth update on new subjects and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in diagnosis and treatment of childhood infectious diseases.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews.
The aim of the
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric infectious diseases.
Abstract: An association between infection and an individual's blood group has been reported in the adult medical literature. This association has so far not been investigated in the neonate, and may be reflected in the differences in susceptibilities of neonates to bacterial sepsis. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between ABO phenotype and the incidence of sepsis in very low birth weight infants. This is a retrospective data analysis. All very low birth…weight infants admitted to The George Washington University Medical Center between November 1997 and March 2003 were classified according to blood groups into group 1: Phenotype O and A [possible B-antibody (ab)]; and group 2: Phenotype B and AB (without B-ab). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine statistically significant differences in sepsis between the two groups. Data on 164 infants was analyzed. One hundred and twenty five infants (76.2%) had blood group A or O and 39 infants (23.8%) had blood group B or AB. Mean gestational age was 27.6 ± 2.4 weeks and mean birth weight was 984.5 ± 295 g. Groups were not significantly different in gestational age, birth weight, gender, and race. After controlling for confounding variables, there was no difference between the groups in the incidence of sepsis (34% vs. 33%, P=0.24). ABO blood group phenotype was not correlated with sepsis in the very low birth weight infants in our unit.
Abstract: Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a well recognized condition in infants and children. However, the diagnosis of isolated HSV pneumonia, without evidence of other organ involvement, in this population is rare. We present a case series of isolated HSV pneumonia in four patients, all of which survived this acute illness with normal neurological outcome. Clinical features, diagnostic approaches, intensive care management, and antiviral drug therapy are reviewed.
Abstract: A case of measles that developed myelitis is reported for the past 20 years, only nine pediatric cases including this case, have been reported in the literature. Moreover, there is no consensus about treatment. In the present case, steroid pulse therapy was, begun four days after the neurological symptoms appeared, and the prognosis was excellent. It is important to start steroid pulse therapy at the early stage in children with acute transverse myelitis after establishing the…diagnosis.
Abstract: Anginosus group streptococci (previously known as Streptococcus milleri group) comprise three subspecies known to cause endogenous pyogenic infections. The majority of cases reported are in adults. We report a liver abscess occurring in a 3-year-old child without known preceding factors. He presented with clinical signs and X-ray findings compatible with a lower respiratory tract infection and was treated with oral amoxicillin. A blood culture grew Streptococcus constellatus and an abdominal ultra sound scan…revealed a liver abscess confirmed by computerized tomography scan. Conservative management with a prolonged course of antibiotics led to complete resolution. Anginosus group streptococci can cause liver abscesses in healthy children and the presence of bacteremia due to this group of organisms should prompt investigation for occult abscesses.
Keywords: Streptococcus milleri, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, liver abscess, children
Abstract: Pseudotumor cerebri is a clinical syndrome that mimics brain tumor and is characterized by increased intracranial pressure in the absence of intracranial pathology. This syndrome may have an identifiable specific underlying cause or may be idiopathic. The possible association between this condition and infections has been suggested in a few case series. We present a child with nephrotic syndrome on low dose steroids who developed pseudotumor cerebri following varicella infection. There are very few case reports…describing such an association previously. We suggest that pseudotumor cerebri should be included in the differential diagnosis of persistent headache in a child suffering from varicella infection, especially when the child is on steroids.
Abstract: Community-associated strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have recently emerged as a major cause of serious infections with rarely observed serious complication, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and septic pulmonary embolism (SPE), among children. SPE, DVT and bone or joint infections are a triad which is rarely seen in children. This clinical syndrome is a life-threatening disorder, which requires prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment. We report a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with SPE, DVT and…disseminated, community-acquired, methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
Abstract: Congenital malaria can be acquired by transmission of parasite from mother to child during pregnancy or perinatally during labor. Placental barrier and maternal immunoglobulin G antibodies, which cross the placenta, may protect the fetus to some extent. However, it is much more common in non-immune population and the incidence goes up during epidemics of malaria. We report a rare case of congenital malaria due to mixed species in a neonate who presented with fever, pallor and…hepatosplenomegaly.
Keywords: Congenital malaria, neonate, mixed species
Abstract: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in children is increasing. In the year 2000, 11% of the 8.3 million new cases of TB worldwide occurred in children less than 15 years of age. We describe a case of miliary cerebral and retinal TB that occurred in an immunocompetent adolescent who was treated with anti TB therapy for 14 months and had a complete resolution of the cerebral lesions.
Keywords: Cerebral tuberculosis, retinal tuberculosis, children