Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Volume 3, issue 3
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Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal, publishing articles in the field of child infectious diseases. The journal provides an in-depth update on new subjects and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in diagnosis and treatment of childhood infectious diseases.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews.
The aim of the
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric infectious diseases.
Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. In June 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Gardasil, a quadrivalent HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 recombinant vaccine. Indicated for young girls and women aged 9 to 26, Gardasil is the first vaccine approved to prevent transmission of HPV types 16 and 18. In order to move toward universal acceptance of the HPV vaccine by the general population, both…mandated HPV vaccination and HPV vaccination-specific issues must be addressed. Identifying and understanding factors associated with the acceptance of the HPV vaccine has been and will continue to be important so physicians can assist parents and adolescents in their decision to refuse or accept the vaccine. Despite the potential social and cultural barriers to a universal HPV vaccination program, numerous studies have indicated a willingness among many women to accept the vaccine for their daughters. It is clear that education will play an important role in the implementation of such a vaccination program.
Keywords: Acceptance, HPV, human papillomavirus vaccine, barriers, sexually transmitted disease
Abstract: This study aims to determine the ability of zinc sulphate to inhibit growth of Shigella in vitro and test the hypothesis that the isolates recovered from Nigerian children with low plasma zinc concentration are more sensitive than the marginal plasma zinc isolates. The effect of zinc sulphate on extracellular protease secretion was also investigated. A total of 15 Shigella isolates recovered from the stool samples of 117 diarrheic children at various health centers in…Lagos, Nigeria were tested for sensitivity to zinc sulphate in vitro by agar dilution method. Plasma zinc concentration was determined spectrophotometrically to enable stratification of the patients into two zinc arms: low (plasma zinc <9.2 μmol/L) and marginal (plasma zinc: 9.2–4 μmol/L). The in vitro effect of zinc sulphate on extracellular protease secretion based on azocasein hydrolysis in these isolates was also determined. Isolates of Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri were found to be more sensitive to zinc sulphate (minimum inhibitory concentration = 0.89–0.98 ± 0.03–0.06 mg/mL) than the isolates of Shigella sonnei and Shigella boydii (minimum inhibitory concentration = 1.13–1.4 ± 0.06–0.1 mg/mL (P < 0.05). The late logarithmic growth kinetics of these isolates also produced similar response to zinc sulphate in vitro. The observed zinc sulphate-induced growth inhibition of the Shigella isolates tested was further found to be associated with a decline in their extracellular protease secretion in both zinc arms. Zinc sulphate elicits in vitro inhibition of growth and serogroups-dependent decline in extracellular protease activity among Shigella isolates from Nigerian children irrespective of their systemic zinc levels. We conclude that zinc sulphate may have potentials to be used as a shigellocidal and anti-virulent agent in the management of shigellosis in children.
Abstract: Clinicians in Spain perceive an increase in the incidence of pediatric empyema. The available objective information is limited because it is a condition, for which there is no specific active epidemiological surveillance. This study aims to determine and evaluate the incidence of empyema of infectious origin, especially pneumococcal empyema, among children in Galicia (North-West of Spain). A retrospective search of all pediatrics cases of empyema from 1996 to present (May 2006) in Galicia (North-West of…Spain) was performed using the official hospital admissions database. A total of 165 patients were identified, showing an increase in the incidence of empyema (1.02 cases/100,000 children in 1996 to 7.35 cases/100,000 children in 2005) and a decrease in the mean age of the patients affected [(7.25 (6.3) years in 1996 to 3.7 (3) in 2005]. This increase in the incidence of empyema started before the antipneumococcal vaccine became available and the reason for it remains unknown. This situation would justify the establishment of prospective systems for the surveillance and control of empyema.
Abstract: Since congenital malaria had previously been thought to be rare, blood film examination for malaria parasites is still sometimes not routinely performed in ill neonates in malaria-endemic regions. Because of increasing published reports of congenital malaria in Nigeria, there is a need to characterize the clinical and laboratory manifestations associated with malaria parasitemia within the first few hours of life. In a 12-month (April 2003-March 2004), multicenter study in Nigeria, thin and thick blood smears made…from maternal (finger prick), placental aspirates, cord blood and neonate (heel prick taken within 4 hours of life) were Giemsa-stained and examined by light microscopy for asexual stages of Plasmodium. Parasitemic neonates were closely monitored for clinical and laboratory features of symptomatic malaria. Plasmodium falciparum was found in 5.1% (95/1875) of neonatal heel pricks; mean parasite density was low (mean = 48/μL, range 8–200/&μL). Antepartum maternal and placental parasitemia were the most important risk factors for congenital parasitemia (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Prolonged labor and prolonged rupture of membranes were also significant factors in the symptomatic neonates. Sixty-one percent (58/95) of parasitemic babies were asymptomatic, while 38.9% (37/95) of them exhibited signs of possible infection. The presence of any symptom was significantly related to parasitemia (P < 0.001). Among the symptomatic parasitemic babies the most common symptoms were, fever (temperature >37.5�) within the first 24 hours of life (100%) and refusal to suck (10.8%). Anemia at birth (hematocrit <42%) was found in 15.7% (15/95) of parasitemic babies as compared to 9.2% in the non-parasitemic ones. (P = 0.03, OR = 1.84). The mean hematocrit of parasitemic neonates within 4 hours of life was 49.5 ± 6.4 as compared to 52.6 ± 8.2 in non-parasitemic babies (P = 0.001). Furthermore, the mean hematocrit was 44.0 ± 5.5% in the symptomatic parasitemic babies. All symptomatic babies were treated with oral chloroquine with a cure rate of 89.1%. Treatment failures subsequently received oral sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with good outcome. The febrile newborn should be evaluated for malaria especially if there is a history of prolonged labor or in the presence of maternal malaria infection. Efforts should be intensified to reduce the burden of maternal, placental malaria and therefore congenital malaria.
Keywords: Congenital malaria, Nigeria, clinical features, laboratory features
Abstract: Recent studies have shown that the oxidative state plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neuroinflammatory diseases. Determination of erythrocyte arginase, and catalase (CAT), and also plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured to establish differences between antioxidant state and lipid peroxidationto assess prognosis in neuroinflammatory disease. Three groups were studied, meningitis (n = 28), encephalitis (n = 30), and a control group…(n = 40) for the spectrophotometric measurements of arginase, and CAT activities in erythrocytes, thiosemicarbazide diacetylmonoxime, and Aebi methods were used respectively. Plasma and CSF MDA levels were analyzed with a modified Yagi method and NO levels were assessed using spectrophotometric methods using the Griess reaction. Levels of erythrocyte arginase, erythrocyte CAT, and CSF NO differed between meningitis and encephalitis (P < 0.05). While levels of erythrocyte CAT, and CSF MDA, plasma NO and CSF NO concentrations differed between the meningitis group and controls (P < 0.05). Concentrations of erythrocyte arginase, CSF MDA and plasma NO differed between encephalitis and control groups (P < 0.05). All tests in the study except erythrocyte arginase and plasma MDA differed between meningitis cases and controls (P < 0.05). In the meningitis and encephalitis cases, studied oxidative states in blood, and CSF were affected at different levels, meningitis being more severe.
Abstract: Rheumatic fever has remained a health concern in some parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. The diagnosis of the disease is based on Jones criteria that consist of major and minor manifestations. The existences of atypical presentation and accompanying diseases have been reported in a number of rheumatic fever cases. We report a case of acute rheumatic fever that was accompanied by pulmonary regurgitation and psychiatric syndrome, which might be considered as parts of…carditis and Sydenham chorea respectively.
Abstract: Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a well-known entity. There are infrequent reports of HCMV infection causing endothelial damage leading to aortic thrombi and coarctation of aorta. Also, association of congenital HCMV infection with corpus colossal agenesis has been reported very infrequently. We describe such a case with HCMV infection with multiorgan involvement and two unusual features of aortic pathology and corpus colossal agenesis in the absence of other more frequently described central nervous…system findings.
Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, coarctation of aorta, aortic thrombi, corpus colossal agenesis
Abstract: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a known cause of invasive infection in neonates and adults with significant underlying medical conditions, particularly diabetes mellitus. There is no evidence in the literature of a pediatric diabetic patient with a GBS infection. The first case is presented of a 12-year-old female with an invasive GBS infection as the initial presenting complaint of new onset type I diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: GBS, diabetes mellitus type I, diabetic ketoacidosis, adolescent
Abstract: Schistosomiasis is a common parasitic infection especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, but is also present in Asia and South-America. With the increase in the number of Europeans travelling to endemic areas, more patients with acute infections would be expected. A case of a four year old boy with symptoms of Katayama fever, as acute schistosomiasis is called, is presented. Diagnostic procedures and treatment is described. It is important for clinicians to being able to recognize this disease…entity and to advise travellers to avoid fresh water in endemic areas in order not to put them selves at risk of the infection.
Keywords: Acute schistosomiasis, Katayama fever, travelling, children