Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Volume 3, issue 1
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Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal, publishing articles in the field of child infectious diseases. The journal provides an in-depth update on new subjects and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in diagnosis and treatment of childhood infectious diseases.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews.
The aim of the
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric infectious diseases.
Abstract: Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile multi-system syndrome that is considered one of the most common vasculitides of pediatric age group. It is the leading cause of acquired cardiac disease in developed countries. In the absence of an identifiable etiological agent or diagnostic test, clinical criteria form the basis of diagnosis. High index of suspicion and prompt treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin are necessary to prevent complications. We present a short review of the current state of…understanding of Kawasaki disease about its etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, and management.
Abstract: Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) is the infection of humans by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. Three species of public health importance, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and E. vogeli respectively, cause cystic, alveolar and polycystic echinococcosis respectively, and are the subject of this review. Several studies have shown that these diseases are an increasing public health concern and that both can be regarded as emerging or re-emerging diseases. In…this review, we discuss aspects of their biology, life cycle, etiology, distribution, and transmission of the Echinococcus organisms, and the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and effect of improved diagnosis of the diseases they cause. New sensitive and specific diagnostic methods and effective therapeutic approaches against echinococcosis have been developed in the last 10 years. Despite some progress in the control of echinococcosis, this zoonosis continues to be a major public health problem in several countries and in several others; it constitutes an emerging and re-emerging disease.
Abstract: Blood culture remains the gold standard for diagnosing neonatal septicemia. Although automated continuous monitoring blood culture systems have generally been shown to be superior to conventional manual systems, there are few data relating to their use specifically in neonates. The aim of this study was to compare the manual method of blood culture with an automated BacT/Alert 3D system for detection of neonatal septicemia in terms of rate of recovery of pathogens and time to positivity.…One hundred and one matched pairs of blood culture specimens from patients on a neonatal intensive care unit were evaluated by the two methods. The yield of significant pathogens with the BacT/Alert 3D system was 45.5%, compared with 18.8% with the manual method (P<0.0001). Moreover, streptococci, which are important neonatal pathogens, were detected exclusively with the automated system. The median time to positivity with the automated system was 11.5 h, compared with 24 h for the manual system. The BacT/Alert 3D system offers more sensitive and rapid detection of neonatal septicemia than a manual blood culture method. The clinical benefits of this may justify the additional cost of automated blood culture systems in developing countries where manual systems currently remain commonplace.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety and reinfection rates at 6 and 12 months after treatment of schistosomiasis with praziquantel 60 mg/kg single dose, as compared to the standard 40 mg/kg single dose regimen. A school-based randomized, double blind, experimental drug trial was implemented in Bunawan and Trento, in the province of Agusan del Sur, Philippines. The Kato Katz technique was used for quantitative assessment of Schistosoma japonicum infection. Follow-up visits…were done 21, 180 and 360 days post-treatment. Efficacy, safety and reinfection rates of the two treatment regimens were compared using Student's t-test, Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance. There were 102 and 101 patients assigned to the 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg treatment groups, respectively. On day 21 post-treatment, 95% and 98.0% of the patients were cured, with egg reduction rates were of 99.9% and 99.99%, respectively. Remaining infections were of light intensity. On days 180 and 360, infection rates increased, with re-emergence of moderate and heavy intensity infections. On treatment day, the cumulative prevalence of adverse events in the 60 mg/kg treatment group was significantly higher than in the 40 mg/kg treatment group (P=0.002). In conclusion, praziquantel 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg single dose therapy had comparable efficacy. A significantly higher prevalence of adverse events, mostly mild and transient, was observed in the 60 mg/kg regimen. The 40 mg/kg regimen is recommended for the treatment of schistosomiasis. High reinfection rates suggest the need to re-examine behavioral and environmental factors in the community.
Abstract: Two human gastric pathogens, Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter heilmannii are apparently different genetically as well as morphologically. H. pylori have short spiral morphology while H. heilmannii is a long spiral bacterium with four or more turns. In this study, we observed elongated, spiral, Gram-negative organisms in crush smears of antral biopsies from two children with upper abdominal pain and one with celiac disease; all these biopsies were positive for rapid urease test. Histologically…the children had mild to moderate gastritis. Ultra-structurally, the organisms were more elongated than H. pylori and spiral shaped with periplasmic space. They were grown on chocolate Brucella agar and colonies were identified as H. pylori biochemically and by urease gene based polymerase chain reaction. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of sonicated extracts of these organisms showed similar metabolic peaks as H. pylori. 16S-rDNA sequencing results confirmed that the isolated organisms were H. pylori. The study suggests that a morphologically different (elongated) form of H. pylori strain exists in the stomach of children and is associated with gastric pathology.
Keywords: Celiac disease, children, gastritis, H. pylor}, upper abdominal pain
Abstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in early childhood. Annual epidemics occur which are well documented in developed countries during winter months, placing considerable pressure on the provision of health care. Little is known about the epidemiology of RSV infections in the Middle East and other desert climate regions of the world. The objective of this study was to determine the infection rate and seasonality of RSV among…children 2 years old or younger and its correlation with meteorological data in Qatar. A retrospective descriptive hospital-based population study was conducted. Data of RSV infection detected from children at Pediatric Emergency Centre in the Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of Qatar from January 2002 to September 2007, were collected. Meteorological data from Department of Civil Aviation were collected during the period of January 2002 – September 2007 and were used to determine the mean monthly temperature, relative humidity, evaporation, rainfall and wind speed. A total of 3121 children below 2 years of age were screened for a possible infection for RSV during the study period. 26.3% of the total children screened tested positive for RSV (infection rate) with the highest annual rate of 35.3% in 2003 and the lowest rate of 13.2% in 2007. RSV was found to be a major cause of hospital admission in children during the winter months of November – January every year. The peak of mean relative humidity significantly coincided with the peak of RSV infection rate (P=0.0039 and r=0.7682), and there was a significant inverse correlation between the monthly mean temperature and RSV infection (P=0.0061 and r=−0.7384). The pattern of RSV infections showed a clear seasonality in that infections were mostly encountered during winter and after rainfall. Further studies should focus on the significance of RSV infections in other age groups or in other infections with other respiratory viruses.groups or in other infections with other respiratory viruses.
Abstract: We studied 70 pediatric clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to perform a comparison of different methods for detection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using polymerase chain reaction for mecA as the "gold standard" assay. The isolates were tested with oxacillin and cefoxitin discs, oxacillin agar screening plate and E-test. Of the 70 strains, 43 were mecA-positive and 27 mecA-negative. Oxacillin agar screening plate and E-test had 100% sensitivity and specificity for the…presence of mecA gene. We found a specificity of 96% for both disc-diffusion methods, and sensitivities of 95% (oxacillin disc) and 93% (cefoxitin disc). However, with the new Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2007 cefoxitin breakpoints the sensitivity of this method would be increased to 100%, without any decrease in specificity. These results show how important is the evaluation of the available microbiological methods by different laboratories in different settings.
Abstract: Group A beta hemolytic streptococci (GAS) can cause a wide range of mild infections but they are associated with severe infections with high morbidity and mortality rates. Risk factors for invasive GAS infections in children include antecedent varicella zoster infection. There is an increasing incidence of invasive GAS infection caused by clonal strains leading to outbreaks in the last decade. We describe four pediatric patients with severe conditions caused by GAS, leading to intensive care support…in two patients. Two of the patients had antecedent varicella infection. A single clone of group A streptococcus was responsible in all children. Routine varicella vaccination is not currently part of the health programs of many countries, including The Netherlands. One benefit of universal varicella vaccination would be the prevention of some cases of pediatric invasive GAS disease, leading to a decrease in hospitalization, morbidity and mortality rates.
Keywords: Group A beta hemolytic streptococci (GAS), pediatric, varicella, vaccination
Abstract: Most cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children result from mother to child transmission. Other risk factors for transmission include transfusion of infected blood and use of contaminated instruments. We report the case of a five-month-old female infant who presented with a history of cough and weight loss of a month's duration. Her mother was diagnosed HIV positive in the first trimester of pregnancy but defaulted from prevention of mother to child transmission services.…After delivery, the child was circumcised on the eighth day and severe bleeding complicated the procedure. She was then taken to a private hospital were she was transfused with her father's blood without screening. Both parents were subsequently confirmed HIV positive. The child was also confirmed HIV positive by DNA polymerase chain reaction and had features of HIV encephalopathy and severe immunosuppression (CD4 9.3%). Exposure of this infant to HIV through the mother only carries a transmission risk of 30%. Female genital mutilation and transfusion with her father's blood that was probably already infected constituted increased or additional risks. There is need for health education against transfusion of unscreened blood even when the parents are the donors. Female genital mutilation should also be discouraged by health education and appropriate legislation.