Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Volume 2, issue 1
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Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal, publishing articles in the field of child infectious diseases. The journal provides an in-depth update on new subjects and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in diagnosis and treatment of childhood infectious diseases.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor and book reviews.
The aim of the
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of pediatric infectious diseases.
Abstract: Chronic hepatitis C viral infection represents a worldwide viral epidemic. The natural course of hepatitis C virus is less understood in the pediatric population, although fewer children progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease than adults infected. In the last five years, epidemiological and clinical research involving hepatitis C virus-infected children has raised interesting observations regarding the differences in transmission, natural history, and response to treatment in this population.
Abstract: Helminthic diseases can be found worldwide, and the prevalence of helminthiases was also found to be closely associated with climatic and geographical factors. Soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most prevalent of chronic human infections worldwide. Based on the demonstrable impact on child development, there is a global commitment to finance and implement control strategies with a focus on school-based chemotherapy programs. Children in the developing countries become the most important vulnerable…group to these infections. The main reason is that they usually play within the grounds. Here, the authors summarize experience on previous reports on the soil-transmitted parasite contamination in Thailand. Also, the authors discuss the problem of soil-transmitted parasites as still being an important problem.
Abstract: In Brazil, routine childhood rubella vaccination was introduced during 1992–2000 and a campaign targeted to women of childbearing age was conducted during 2001–2002 to accelerate control of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Surveillance of CRS was implemented in 2000, to detect CRS cases and evaluate impact of rubella vaccination strategies and an elimination goal was established in 2003. National CRS surveillance data were analyzed to describe CRS incidence and positive predictive value (PPV). International…standard CRS case definitions were used. Completeness of coverage was estimated by a capture-recapture method using surveillance data and a retrospective study in maternity hospitals. Case detection strategies were evaluated using data from three CRS clusters investigated in Brazil during 1999–2002. In 2001, CRS incidence was 2.3 per 100,000 children <1 year of age and PPV was 18%, decreasing to 0.1 and 4%, respectively, in 2004. No new confirmed or compatible cases of CRS were identified in 2005. Of 2,443 suspected CRS cases reported during 1995–2005, 1,889 (77%) were born during 2000–2005. Of these, 1,486 (79%) had one blood sample for IgM testing; 93% (n=1,024) within six months of age. A total of 280 (12%) infants had confirmed or compatible CRS, of which 51% (93/184) had fatal outcome. Completeness of coverage was estimated at 7%. PPV of active case finding (63%) was 4.3-fold greater than follow-up of pregnant women with confirmed rubella (15%). Rubella and CRS incidence have declined dramatically in Brazil demonstrating the impact of national rubella control strategies, and representing surveillance challenges in the end-stage of elimination. High routine rubella vaccination coverage and a high-quality surveillance system will be critical to achieve the elimination goal. Active CRS surveillance at maternity and referral tertiary hospitals is recommended.
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to describe a series of children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), evaluate the proportion with defined risks for pneumococcal disease and to assess the impact of the new UK pneumococcal vaccination schedule in preventing IPD. We conducted a review of case notes of children aged 0–16 years admitted to a large district general/teaching hospital in East Birmingham from September 1993-December 2004. Fifty-six children were identified with IPD; case notes were…available for 54 children (55 episodes). The median age at diagnosis was 15 months (inter-quartile range 8–37.5 months). Only 14 (26%) had pre-existing risk factors for developing IPD. A significant age difference was found between those with co-existing risk factors and those without (median 37 months vs. 11 months; P<0.05). Twenty-one (72%) of the cases where serotypes were known, had serotypes covered by the 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine and 28 (97%) covered by the polysaccharide vaccine. However most would not have benefited from the polysaccharide vaccine since 32 (59%) were less than 2 years of age at the time of the episode of IPD. Targeted pneumococcal vaccination might prevent less than 26% of cases of IPD in children. Incorporating the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine into the universal vaccination program might prevent 70% of IPD in children.
Abstract: A knowledge, attitude and practice study on vaccination was undertaken among Iranian mothers in pediatric clinic of a university medical center in Tehran, between March and August 2005, and 668 mothers responded to a questionnaire-based interview. The results showed a favorable attitude towards children immunization in 95.5% of respondents. Nearly half (51.4%; 95% confidence interval: 47.6%–55.2%) of mothers knew the name of the diseases against which their children were being vaccinated. More than half…(67%) of respondents gave disproportionate importance to mild intercurrent illness as a reason to defer immunization. About half of children (341=51.1%) experienced vaccination delay. Results of logistic regression analysis showed increase in: birth order, number of children in household, and mother's age significantly predicted vaccination schedule non-adherence (P=0.02, P=0.02 and P=0.04 to P=0.001 respectively) and increasing mother's age was the most significant factor for vaccination delay. Educating mothers about the vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases, and improving their performance are recommended.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity in severely malnourished children. Three hundred severely malnourished children (defined as of weight for height <70% according to WHO classification) were subjected to enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of HIV antibodies. All the severely malnourished children who were screened for HIV antibodies were found to be negative. The seropositivity in severely malnourished children was found to be…zero. Hence, severe malnutrition cannot be an indication for routine testing for HIV in this part of country. However, children with multiple risk factors may be screened for HIV infection in a resource poor country like India.
Keywords: HIV, protein energy malnutrition, malnourished children, India
Abstract: From the beginning of October 2002 until the end of April 2003, 72 samples from 36 cystic fibrosis patients were examined in the Microbiology Laboratory, Hamad Medical Corporation. One hundred and thirteen organisms were isolated and tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the predominant pathogens. Ten percent of H. influenzae were β-lactamase producers and 57% were resistant to co-trimoxazole. No methicillin resistant…S. aureus was isolated. P. aeruginosa strains, particularly the mucoid ones, showed high resistance to aminoglycosides, while drugs like aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem and ciprofloxacin, showed low-level resistance and are reliable for empirical therapy for infection with such organisms in our institute.
Abstract: This case report describes an early presentation (<6 hours) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A in a neonate born to a mother who was a carrier of the bacterium (nasopharynx, intracervical and whole blood). The neonate succumbed to the infection. N. meningitidis was recovered from cerebrospinal fluid. The isolates of the mother and infant were proven identical by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. The early presentation and presence of circulating DNA of the…organism suggested an intrauterine transfer of the disease.
Abstract: Tuberculous meningitis is the most serious form of tuberculosis and carries a high mortality and morbidity despite the availability of effective chemotherapeutic agents. Poor response to therapy or death is often due to failure to begin appropriate therapy in the early stages of the disease. We report a rare case of tuberculous meningitis in a 7-month old infant following unsuccessful vaccination and close exposure to adult uncle who died from pulmonary tuberculosis when she was 3…months old. The described case points out serious possibility of pulmonary tuberculosis with meningitis in non-vaccinated or unsuccessfully vaccinated children and importance of the chemoprophylaxis in infants who were exposed to tuberculous infection, as well as early discovery and treatment of illness.