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Journal of Pediatric Epilepsy is an English multidisciplinary peer-reviewed international journal publishing articles on all topics related to epilepsy and seizure disorders in childhood. These topics include the basic sciences related to the condition itself, the differential diagnosis, natural history and epidemiology of seizures, and the investigation and practical management of epilepsy (including drug treatment, neurosurgery and non-medical and behavioral treatments).
Journal of Pediatric Epilepsy provides an in-depth update on new subjects, and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood epilepsy.
Journal of Pediatric Epilepsy encourages submissions from all authors throughout the world.
The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, short report, rapid communications, case reports, letters to the editor, and book reviews. The aim of the journal is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of epilepsy in childhood.
Abstract: Epileptic encephalopathies refer to a group of uncommon disorders usually presenting in the first days of life secondary to a congenital inborn error of the metabolism. This group of disorders may involve a dysfunctional protein, an enzymatic deficiency or an excess of a byproduct; usually due to a faulty metabolic pathway. Several classifications have been coined in the past. In this article, we have reviewed the most common epileptic encephalopathies. Additionally, we are discussing a number of recently described channelopathies presenting with seizures early in life.
Abstract: We provide a comprehensive review of studies done since 2000 of the newest anticonvulsant medications in the treatment of pediatric epilepsy. Using the PubMed search engine we identified any studies referencing the use of the following eight anticonvulsants in children: brivaracetam, clobazam, ezogabine, felbamate, lacosamide, perampanel, vigabatrin and zonisamide. The papers reviewed included case reports, observational studies, retrospective and randomized-controlled trials between the year 2000 and 2014. Although there is abundant observational data on the safety and efficacy of these eight anticonvulsants in the treatment of pediatric epilepsy, there are only a limited number of randomized, placebo controlled trials of…these drugs. Further study in this area is needed.
Abstract: The ketogenic diet is a very time and labor-intensive method of treatment for intractable epilepsy. It has seen a big comeback in pediatric epilepsy and although this is not a new treatment as such, in this article we describe the actual “behind the scenes” work that goes into making the “diet” a prescription medicine for patients. We describe the working of our own program, which is the only program for the state of Iowa.
Abstract: Neurostimulation for epilepsy is a rapidly expanding field. Since the introduction of vagus nerve stimulation more than 15 yr ago, there have been new developments in the area, including deep brain stimulation (DBS) and responsive neurostimulation. Both of these modalities now have class-I evidence supporting their use. The pivotal trials for DBS and responsive neurostimulation will be summarized. Little is known about the application of these new modalities in pediatric population. Case reports and case series of DBS including pediatric population are summarized.
Keywords: Deep brain stimulation, responsive neurostimulation, neurostimulation, drug-resistant epilepsy, seizures, epilepsy surgery
Abstract: Corpus callosotomy, or surgical disconnection of the corpus callosum, is an operation used for patients with medically intractable epilepsy that reduces seizure frequency and severity in a number of different seizure types, particularly drop attacks. Though typically thought of as a palliative operation for epilepsies without a localizable epileptic focus, previous work has demonstrated that callosotomy alters the dynamics of seizure spread and in some cases can reveal previously undiscovered epileptic foci on follow-up electroencephalography or electrocorticography. In recent years, several case reports and case series demonstrate use of callosotomy as an aid to seizure localization in cases where traditional…techniques have failed. In this manuscript, we describe the emerging literature describing callosotomy as an aid to seizure localization.
Abstract: Hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is an uncommon intrinsically epileptogenic lesion of the hypothalamus that is associated with medically intractable epilepsy. Intractable seizures caused by HH may lead to progressive cognitive delay and are also associated with generation of secondary epileptic foci. Therefore, early referral and surgery for children with HH is critical. Recent advances in minimally invasive neurosurgical techniques, including endoscopy, radiosurgery, magnetic resonance-guided laser interstitial ablation, and deep brain stimulation, have increased both the variety and feasibility of treatment options available for treating the intractable seizures caused by HH. In this manuscript, we review emerging techniques available for treatment of…intractable seizures associated with HH.
Abstract: Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is a technique for invasive localization of the epileptogenic zone that involves percutaneous placement of stereotactically targeted depth electrodes for simultaneous recording from neocortical and subcortical brain structures. Although SEEG has been utilized in Europe and Canada for many years, it is beginning to gain traction throughout the Americas as it allows simultaneous recording from both superficial and deep brain structures through a percutaneous approach. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the use of SEEG as it relates specifically to localization of the epileptogenic zone in pediatric epilepsy surgery. We review the literature to describe the…history, indications, surgical technique, outcomes, and complications of SEEG.
Keywords: Epilepsy, seizures, pediatrics, extratemporal epilepsy, epileptogenic zone
Abstract: Marijuana has been shown to have anti-epileptic effects in animal studies. Some animal studies suggest that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol can control seizures not responsive to other treatments. There is currently very limited scientific data to support the use of marijuana in the treatment of epilepsy in humans. Nonetheless, there is a large volume of anecdotal evidence showing clinical benefit in treating epilepsy. Despite limited evidence of efficacy, many patients with epilepsy believe marijuana is an effective therapy and are actively using it. Infact, some states in the United States of America have approved its use for epilepsy.
Abstract: Acute encephalopathy with inflammation-mediated status epilepticus, followed by the development of medically refractory epilepsy is a spectrum of disorders being increasingly reported in children. Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) occurring in school age children and hemiconvulsions, hemiplegia and epilepsy (HHE) syndrome occurring in younger children are the two most commonly recognized entities. The majority of the affected patients develop medically refractory epilepsy and neurocognitive sequelae. We present two illustrative cases and discuss the difficulties faced in their diagnosis and treatment. No specific etiology has been identified and the diagnosis is often made by exclusion. Ketogenic diet has been shown to…be effective in controlling the seizures associated with FIRES. Immunomodulating therapies have shown mixed results. Children with HHE developing refractory epilepsy are potential candidates for epilepsy surgery. Urgent research is needed for identifying novel biomarkers as well as for developing therapies targeted at the inflammatory cascade.