Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry - Volume 3, issue 1
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Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry is an English multidisciplinary peer-reviewed international journal publishing articles in the field of child biochemistry, pediatric laboratory medicine and biochemical aspects to the study of childhood diseases in body fluids, cells or tissues.
Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry provides an in-depth update on new subjects, and current comprehensive coverage of the latest techniques in biochemical diagnosis in childhood. The journal encourages submissions from all authors throughout the world. The following articles will be considered for publication: editorials, original and review articles, short report, rapid communications, letters to the editor, and book reviews. The aim of the journal is to share and disseminate knowledge between all disciplines that work in the field of child biochemistry.
Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry is published quarterly (January, April, July and October) by the Society of Child Science, Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Medicine, Van, Turkey. Manuscripts are judged by two experts solely on the basis of their contribution of original data and ideas and their presentation. All articles will be critically reviewed within two months, but longer delays are sometimes unavoidable. All manuscripts must comply with the Instructions to Authors.
Abstract: Obesity is a condition of excessive body fat or adipose tissue. In children, obesity is defined as a weight ⩾ 95th percentile BMI for age while overweight or at risk for obesity is defined as a weight ⩾ 85th but < 95th percentile BMI for age. Pediatric obesity has become a worldwide public health concern as children, leading to series health consequences. In this review, the etiology, consequences, assessment and treatment of childhood obesity are discussed.
Abstract: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with first recognition during pregnancy. With the new IADPSG diagnostic criteria the prevalence of GDM increases significantly worldwide. The potential risks of GDM for mother and child both in the short and long term urge more treatments to be explored. Resistant starches as a prebiotics has been shown possessing multiple health benefits including improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Altered gut fermentation and microbiota and…sequential enhancement in blood gut peptides (i.e. GLP-1) are suggested mechanisms involved. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on GDM and the role of RS in the treatment of GDM.
Abstract: This article reviews pediatric obesity and eating disorders in the context of unique issues facing immigrants. Sociocultural factors such as the obesogenic environment and unhealthy food and exercise habits as well as psychological factors such as acculturation and fat oppression have been identified as important in understanding and preventing obesity and other eating disorders. In particular, survey data are presented to show that an immigrant's age of first introduction to Canadian culture and subsequent…enculturation over the lifespan are highly predictive of eating disorder symptomatology. The possible causal connection between obesity and eating disorder symptomatology is discussed. Recommendations for research, practice and prevention agendas are outlined in the aim of promoting pediatric health and wellness.
Abstract: Obesity is a growing health problem because it is associated with many diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes. There is increasing evidence that obesity is under control of several factors in the brain, including orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. Histamine-containing neurons and their receptors, closely involved in regulation of food intake, are distributed throughout the brain. In the reported experiments, dietary influence on H1-receptor binding was examined using female…Sprague-Dawley rats fed diets of low, medium or high quality protein, or diets of normal energy, low energy, very low energy. Differences in food intake and weight change occurred; with no significant differences in whole-brain H1 receptor binding such as had been seen in male rats. Histaminergic antagonism was then tested using centrally acting antihistamines. Weight gain was related to dietary protein intake for saline and doxepin treated rats. Rats fed 5% protein (maintenance) demonstrated that doxepin was a more effective histaminergic antagonist than terfenadine (peripherally acting) in affecting mean cumulative weight gain and food intake. Dietary protein level influenced observed outcomes for the two groups. Male and female rats were given the choice of diets containing 0% or 60% protein, with or without doxepin. Females chose cumulatively lower protein intake than males. The relationship between dietary content, the histaminergic system and food intake in female rats appears to be different than that seen previously in male rats while Zucker obese rats showed no response in histaminergic binding. These studies support the observation that centrally acting antihistamines can increase weight gain.
Keywords: Histamine receptor, obesity, rat, dietary protein
Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants whose exposure levels are associated with various health hazards. We hypothesized that in utero and lactational exposure to PCBs can cause changes in body composition and obesity in a mouse model. Pregnant mice were exposed biweekly to two concentrations of PCB 126 via oral gavage. Maternal PCB exposure did not result in heavier offspring, however, dose-dependent and sex specific changes in body composition were observed. Female offspring displayed…the most susceptibility to PCB-induced alterations in body composition, having less percent lean body mass and increased adiposity compared to females born to control dams, and these effects were largely dose-dependent. In contrast to females, and independent of the exposure level of PCB 126, male offspring had reduced lean body mass but no change in fat mass compared to males born to control dams. In conclusion, perinatal PCB 126 exposure did not affect body weight, but rather modulated body composition in a dose-dependent and gender-specific manner.
Abstract: The rise in childhood obesity has led policymakers to target schools and school districts to take a leadership role in addressing this epidemic. As such, teachers must be prepared to address the complex nature of childhood obesity through nutrition and health education. This paper outlines how teachers have the potential to be agents of change in schools thereby creating a culture of health within the school environment. Through professional development workshops and employee wellness programs, teachers…have the opportunity to learn the knowledge and skills needed to promote health resulting in teachers being role models of healthy behaviors and integrating health concepts into daily instruction. The purpose of this study was to assess the beliefs and self-efficacy of classroom teachers before and after a professional development program focused on aligning nutrition lessons with district learning standards in an urban middle school. The school faculty was exposed to a minimal intervention designed to align nutrition and health standards to core curriculum learning standards. As a result of this program, teachers showed significant changes in their beliefs in the intersection of health and learning and improved their self-efficacy for delivering health and nutrition education aligned to existing learning standards. This project presents the promise that teachers can develop the confidence and conviction to include health across the curriculum and positively impact student and teacher health outcomes.
Keywords: Childhood obesity, school health, teacher self-efficacy, health disparities, professional preparation