Journal of Berry Research - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.), as an important natural and wild plant resource in the world, has high economic and nutritional values. Many researchers have focused on the effect of antioxidant and enzyme inhibitors. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the active ingredients, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activity from different parts (root, stem, leaf, and fruit) of wild lingonberry. METHODS: The active ingredients of lingonberry were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS). Antioxidant activities were measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC assays. Principal component analysis…(PCA) and agglomerated hierarchical clustering (AHC) were used to analyze the relationship between active ingredients, antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activity. RESULTS: Phenolic compounds were significantly higher in leaf and stem. The enzyme inhibitory of the extracts varied observably according to the plant parts. Fruit had the highest acetylcholinesterase (317.67 mg GALAEs/g) and butyrylcholinesterase (346.04 mg GALAEs/g) inhibitory activity, while leaf had the most potent activity on α-amylase (256.59 mg ACAEs/g), α-glucosidase (186.70 mg ACAEs/g) and tyrosinase (42.87 mg KAEs/g). Tyrosinase had strong correlation and similarity with phenolic acids and flavonoids in the correlation analysis and PCA. CONCLUSIONS: 29 active ingredients were detected, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and triterpenes. Lingonberry sample to inhibit the activity of tyrosinase was associated with five flavonoids (kaempferol-3-O-galactoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucosyl (1 ⟶ 2) galactoside, biorobin,,quercetin 3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, rutinum) and phenolic acid content (arbutin). These results suggested that the lingonberry could be used as a promising natural resource for functional food and medicinal development.
Vaccinium vitis-idaea L
, UPLC-TQ-MS/MS, Terpenoids, tyrosinase, butyrylcholinesterase, Principal component analysis (PCA)
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The fruit of Vaccinium uliginosum is a natural berry resource that is rich in polyphenols, flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins, and other active substances, indicating its high developmental potential. However, research on V. uliginosum is limited, with no literature available to clarify the germplasm resources suitable for breeding. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the contents of total flavonoids (TF), total anthocyanins (TA), and total phenols (TP) in 10 different populations of V. uliginosum from the Changbai Mountains, China, and investigate the correlation between these functional components and spatial distribution. METHODS: The components and…contents of TA, TF, and TP were determined using mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and the Folin–Ciocalteu method, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 15 anthocyanins were detected, and the content of Mal-glu, Pet-glu, and Del-glu was the highest among these anthocyanins. The TF and TA and TP contents were highest in the DFHI and LJII populations, respectively, which can be reasonably developed as excellent populations. The TF content of sample DFHI-8, TA content of LJIII-1 and TP content of LJIIII-4 were higher than other samples, which can be used as important breeding germplasm. The content of TF is positively correlated with altitude, while the content of TA and TP is bidirectional, which is positively correlated at 740–838 m and negatively correlated at >838 m. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences in the contents of TF, TA, and TP in V. uliginosum fruit were found among and within populations, and there was a certain correlation between these contents and their spatial distribution.
Keywords: Bog bilberry, HPLC, germplasm resource, altitude, latitude
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Morin, (3,5,7,2′ ,4′ -pentahydroxyflavone), is a polyphenolic compound belonging to bio-flavonoids and is predominantly isolated from the family Moraceae. Previously, studies demonstrated the health benefits of morin using human and animal models. Despite its importance as a bioactive compound, the genetic architecture of the morin biosynthetic pathway is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To understand the genetic architecture of the morin biosynthetic pathway, the following components were analyzed: (1) cis -responsive element (CRE)-mediated regulation, (2) microRNAs (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional silencing, and (3) tissue-specific in silico gene expression. METHODS: To understand the genetic architecture of morin biosynthetic pathway,…in silico survey was carried out using different web servers (MorusDB, MEME suite, NCBI database, PlantCARE, and psRNATarget) and collected mRNA, protein sequences, and expressed microarray data. TBtools was employed for depicting protein and promoter motifs and the heatmap preparation of tissue-specific expression of genes involved in the morin biosynthesis. RESULTS: The current data mining study highlighted the morin biosynthetic pathway associated genes, namely, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (MnPAL ), chalcone synthase A (MnCSA ), chalcone-flavonone isomerase (MnCFI ), and flavonoid 3′ ,5′ -hydroxylase (MnFH ) are transcriptionally regulated by different growth, development, and stress-responsive CREs. Differential expression profiles how MnPAL (L484_024373) and MnCFI (L484_011241) genes were upregulated across selected tissues. Moreover, miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional silencing was identified. CONCLUSIONS: This study will improve our understanding of morin biosynthesis, thus helping improve production via metabolic engineering.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The microencapsulation process using spray drying (SD) represents an effective alternative in protecting the active components present in strawberries. However, microcapsules of strawberry powder mixtures present problems of instantanisation and flowability; an aspect that can be solved by agglomeration of the particles. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the fluidised bed agglomeration process on the flow, instantaneity and antioxidant properties of strawberry powder obtained by SD. METHODS: The response surface methodology (RSM) was used with a centred composite central design (α=1), considering the factors: fluidisation air temperature (50-70°C), time…(30-50 min) and atomisation air pressure of the binder agent (1-2 bar). RESULTS: An increase in particle size was observed in the agglomeration process; the agglomerated particles showed a decrease in wetting time, the agglomerates of strawberry powder mixtures presented excellent instantanisation and fluidity, solving the problems identified in the microcapsules obtained by SD. CONCLUSIONS: Although the moisture and aw levels were increased in the agglomeration process, the values are within the microbiological and physicochemical food safety range; moreover, there was no effect on the phenol content and antioxidant capacity. The experimental optimisation achieved desirability of 68.4%, the optimum conditions being 70°C, 30 min and 1 bar.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that diets rich in flavonoids affect human health. Among flavonoids, anthocyanins have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects toward brain through modulation of neuroinflammation, neurogenesis, neuronal signaling and by modulating gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between consumption of anthocyanin-rich fruits (strawberries, berries, cherries, prickly pears, grapes, blood oranges) and mental health in an Italian cohort study. METHODS: Dietary information was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Mental health outcomes were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the 10-item Center for…the Epidemiological Studies of Depression Short Form (CES-D-10) as a screening tool for sleep quality, perceived stress and depressive symptoms, respectively. RESULTS: A significant inverse association between higher anthocyanin-rich fruits intake and occurrence of poor sleep quality, high perceived stress, and depressive symptoms was found. In the most adjusted model, individuals in the highest tertile of anthocyanin-rich fruits were less likely to have poor sleep quality (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.47–0.86), high perceived stress (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.51–0.92), and depressive symptoms (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.49–0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Diets including fruits rich in anthocyanins may result in positive mental health outcomes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The strawberry is a fruit with great acceptance by the consumer due to its pleasant flavor and functionality; It is rich in vitamin C, tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, catechin, quercetin and kaempferol, organic acids and minerals. OBJETIVE: The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of the feed formulation and the spray-drying process on the quality of strawberry extract microcapsules (EMs). METHODS: The response surface methodology was used with a central composite design centered on the face (α= 1), considering the factors: maltodextrin (MD), inlet air temperature (IAT), outlet air temperature (OAT) and atomizing disk…speed (ADS), and the response variables: humidity (Xw), water activity (aw ), solubility (S), wettability ( We ), hygroscopicity (Hy), bulk density (ρ b ), compacted density (ρ c ), total phenols (TP), antioxidant capacity, angle of repose (AR), strawberry powder particle size (D [3 ;2] ), color (CIE-Lab), and process yield (Y). RESULTS: The aw and Xw values guarantee microbiological stability and control over degradation reactions in EMs. For the levels evaluated, the S was affected by OAT and ADS, and interaction IAT*MD, ADS*MD, IAT2 , and MD2 . The We depended on the factors IAT, OAT, and the interactions IAT*OAT and IAT*MD. ABTS activity was affected by the factors ADS, ADS*MD and IAT2 . The Y was affected by OAT, MD, IAT*OAT, IOT*ADS, IOT*MD, OAT*ADS, ADS*MD, IOT2 , and OAT2 . The increase in MD caused a decrease in Hy. The value of L* was affected by ADS and MD, effects due to temperature did not affect the levels evaluated, and chromaticity a* was positively affected by the increase in ADS. IAT and MD presented a statistical effect on AR. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental optimization reached a desirability of 73.7%, being the optimal conditions: IAT (154°C), OAT (89°C), ADS (16,805 rpm), and MD (11.5%).
Abstract: BACKGROUND: phenylalanine treatment affect on chilling tolerance during postharvest cold storage. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to investigate Exogenous application of phenylalanine (Phe; 0, 15 and 30 mM) on berry phenolic compounds, quality and chilling tolerance of ‘Red Sahebi’ grape was examined during 60 days at 1°C. METHODS: Every 15 days (storage durations were 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days), approximately 150 gr of grape bunches were sampled randomly from cool chamber for following physicochemical and microbial analysis. RESULTS: Phe-treated grape at 30 mM maintained higher titratable acid, total sensory score, total soluble solid, soluble sugars,…organic acids, and antioxidant capacity compared to control grapes. At the end of storage time, 30 mM Phe-treated grapes showed higher flavonols (11% myricetin, 20% quercetin, and 23% kaempferol), flavanols (22% catechin, 34% epicatechin, and 40% epigallocatechin) and anthocyanins (42% malvidin-3-O-glucoside, 30% delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, 25% cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, and 23% pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside) compared to control samples due to lower polyphenol oxidase but higher antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, 30 mM Phe was found to be effective for berry trans-resveratrol and phenolic acid preservation, displayed less fungal decay. The efficiency of Phe on chilling tolerance was monitored by lower rachis browning, electrolyte leakage, and malondialdehyde but higher abscisic acid content. CONCLUSION: Phenylalanine application retained higher TA, TSS, and vitamin C, antioxidant capacity and total sensory score in treated fruits and alleviates chilling injury of table grape during cold storage.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Despite the great range of health-beneficial activities associated with dietary polyphenols, their influence on gut ecology remains poorly understood. Only a few studies have examined the impact of black chokeberry polyphenols present in different matrices on human gut microbiota, and in fact none have examined encapsulated black chokeberry polyphenols. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of black chokeberry polyphenols in pulp, extract and encapsulate (in a maltodextrin:gum Arabic polymer system) on human gut microbiota and fecal short-chain and branched-chain fatty acids (SCFA and BCFA, respectively). METHODS: The effect of…black chokeberry polyphenols on gut microbiota was tested in a validated, dynamic in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2) for 24 h by applying five different interventions (Pulp, Extract, Encapsulate, Encapsulate control, SIEM) to the standardized microbiota from five healthy donors. RESULTS: We observed that the fermentation of black chokeberry polyphenols in the in vitro colon model (TIM-2) resulted in shifts in the standardized microbiota and differentiation in the extent of the production of SCFA and BCFAs. Synergy between maltodextrin+gum Arabic+polyphenols resulted in an increase in the relative abundances of some health-promoting taxa and decrease in the disease related taxa Alistipes . Encapsulation increased the SCFA production and decreased the BCFA production in the lumen. CONCLUSIONS: Although encapsulation of polyphenols may provide a robust way for their protection, their effect on the gut microbiota should be further investigated both by using different coating materials and with in vivo studies.