Journal of Berry Research - Volume Preprint, issue Preprint
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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: During grapevine domestication somatic variation has been used as a source of diversity for clonal selection. OBJECTIVE: This work provides additional information on the molecular mechanisms responsible for berry skin color reversion on a subset of somatic variants for berry skin color never investigated before. METHODS: The berry color locus and its surrounding genomic regionwere genetically characterized through a layer-specific approach, which has already been proven to be a successful method to decipher the molecular mechanisms responsible for color reversions on somatic variants. RESULTS: Deletions of different extent and positions were detected among…less-pigmented/unpigmented variants derived from a pigmented wild-type. These deletions affected only the inner cell layer in the less pigmented variants and both cell layers in the unpigmented variants. Regarding the pigmented variants derived from an unpigmented wild-type, only one group was distinguished by the Gret1 retrotransposon partial excision from the VvMybA1 promoter. Moreover, within this latter group, VvMybA2 showed an important role regarding the phenotypic variation, through the recovery of the functional G allele. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation focused on the berry color locus using somatic variants for berry skin color, promotes a better understanding of the evolutionary events behind their origin and variability, opening an opportunity for their use in the genetic improvement of varieties.
Keywords: Berry skin color, grapevine, L1 and L2 cell layers, MYB genes, somatic mutation, SSR markers
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The leaves of Cissus sicyoides has been utilized in traditional medicine. The berries however are underutilized and do not appear to be widely consumed. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to further evaluate the antioxidant properties of C. sicyoides berries. METHODS: The free radical scavenging activity and IC50 value (inhibitory concentration) of Cissus sicyoides berries was determined utilizing the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Aqueous two-phase partitioning was utilized for preliminary purification of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). PAL activity was determined using an endpoint spectrophotometric assay. The cytotoxicity of the berries was assessed by use…of the Brine shrimp assay. RESULTS: C. sicyoides berries exhibit excellent free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 0.99 mg/mL which is intermediate to that of raspberries and blackberries. The berries are a potential source of PAL with enzyme activity of 0.10±0.01 U/mg protein. CONCLUSION: Preliminary investigations suggest that the fruits are non toxic and may be utilized as a source of antioxidants. It is evident that the plant is a good source of bioactive compounds with significant potential for food, beverage and medical applications.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of two subtypes of esophageal cancer, with high incidence and mortality rates in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated the potential chemoprotective effects of strawberries and aspirin against the development of rat esophageal papillomas, the precursors to ESCC. METHODS: Using a prevention model, we administered study diets to rats before, during, and after N -nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) treatment. The effects of the four diets were evaluated: the control diet, 5% strawberry powder in the control diet, 0.01% aspirin in the drinking water, and the combination of strawberries and…aspirin. At week 25, we euthanized all the rats and collected their esophagi to quantify tumor incidence, multiplicity, and burden, as well as for molecular analysis. RESULTS: Both strawberries and aspirin significantly decreased esophageal tumor multiplicity, with the combination causing the most robust suppression. Aspirin alone and the combination decreased the total tumor burden in the esophagus. None of the diets had a significant effect on tumor incidence or the expression of COX-1 and COX-2. Strawberries and aspirin, alone and in combination, significantly suppressed squamous epithelial cell proliferation (PCNA). CONCLUSIONS: Strawberries, aspirin, and their combination exhibit chemoprotective effects against NMBA-induced esophageal tumors in rats.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Classification of fresh and processing strawberry cultivars is important to make the best utilization of different cultivars in processing. The aim of the study was to investigate whether support vector machine (SVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM) could assist the classification of 15 strawberry cultivars. Twenty-two characteristic indexes were analyzed, including not only appearance indexes but also nutritional indexes. RESULTS: The results showed that classification accuracies of 100% and 88.52% were obtained by using SVM and ELM with 3-fold cross validation, respectively. Moreover, seven characteristic variables extracted from 22 quality indexes by SVM could make it possible…to determine the adaptability of a particular cultivar by measuring relatively small number of indexes. CONCLUSION: Both ELM and SVM models are feasible to identify fresh and processing cultivars. However, SVM showed better performance for its accuracy and simplicity, indicating that SVM would be a good choice for classification of strawberry cultivars.
Keywords: Strawberry cultivars, classification, support vector machine, extreme learning machine
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Late-season foliar application of mineral nutrients is a strategy to achieve higher flower quality, acceptable fruit set and yield in the following spring. However, these treatments may affect current fruit quality and storability. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to consider the effects of different late-season mineral foliar treatments on postharvest quality of kiwifruit that was presented on vines at the time of foliar application. METHODS: Mineral foliar treatments were included urea (0.25%, 0.5% and 1%), zinc sulfate (1000, 1500 and 2000 mg.l–1 ) and boric acid (500, 1000 and 1500 mg.l–1 ) alone and combined treatments with…urea (0.25%) + H3 BO3 (500 mg.l–1 ) + ZnSO4 (1000 mg.l–1 ); urea (0. 5%) + H3 BO3 (1000 mg.l–1 ) + ZnSO4 (1500 mg.l–1 ); urea (1%) + H3 BO3 (1500 mg.l–1 ) + ZnSO4 (2000 mg.l–1 ) and control group (only water). To determine the best foliar application time in late-season, spraying was done at three different times including September 17, October 7 and October 28 and the fruits postharvest traits were analyzed at harvest time and 90 days after storage. RESULTS: In this study, foliar applications of mineral compounds was not shown any negative effect on the fruits quality parameters, but also in some of these treatments positive effect of foliar application were detected on measured parameters. The best performance of foliar application on visible parameters was observed on September 17. Meanwhile, the soluble solids and titratable acidity content was not affected at harvest and after storage time by foliar treatment. Results of this study indicate that dry matter, color indices, and phenol levels were not affected by experimental treatments after storage time. In general, October 7 was indicated as the best spraying time regards into ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, mineral foliar application can improve appearance characteristics, and nutritional value of kiwifruit that presented on vines at the foliar application time, on September 17 and October 7, respectively.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Skunk currant is widely dispersed across North America and a feature of some traditional North American indigenous diets. Whereas many wild and cultivated berries have attracting interest related to their antioxidant phenolic metabolites and putative health benefits in humans, very few data are available concerning skunk currant phytochemistry. OBJECTIVE: Provide the first metabolic profile of skunk currant fruits with a focus on phenolic and polyphenolic compounds, owing to their emerging implications in human health. METHODS: Skunk currants were harvested in Nunavik, Qué bec. Flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were characterized using a targeted approach with…reverse-phase ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Ellagitannins and anthocyanins were measured using reverse-phase HPLC following acid hydrolysis and employing diode array detection. Proanthocyanidins and sugars were detected with normal-phase HPLC. RESULTS: A total of 11 phenolic acids and 11 flavonoids, including three cyanidins and three quercetin glycosides were identified. Both condensed (proanthocyanidins) and hydrolysable (ellagitannins) tannins were also detected at 162 mg and 75 mg per 100 g extract, respectively. The cumulative amount of detected phenolic and polyphenolic metabolites totaled 622.6 mg/100 g extract (63.4 mg/100 g berry FW). CONCLUSIONS: Skunk currant is a source of many bioactive phenolic and polyphenolic compounds. Appearing richer in phenolics than some cultivated varieties, the wild northern varieties of North America warrant additional study.
Keywords: Skunk currants, gadellier glanduleux, berries, ellagitannins, shikimic
acid, Inuit, traditional foods, traditional indigenous diet
Abstract: In nature, plants are simultaneously exposed to a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses limiting their yield, and thus, it is useful evaluating effects of biotic and abiotic stresses on plant growth and development. Here, a combination effect of drought stress and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infection were investigated on some physiological traits of tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. Two levels of CMV infection (infected and non-infected) and four drought stress (100% Field capacity (FC), 80% FC, 60% FC and 40% FC) were used as treatments to set a factorial experimental design. After two weeks, systemic infection of CMV and…some physiological traits including the relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were measured. Results showed that combination of CMV and drought stress delayed appearance of drought symptoms. Both infected and non-infected plants showed the lowest RWC, total chlorophyll, carotenoid and the highest EL observed in 40% FC, which may be related to effectiveness of drought on CMV. Since drought stress ameliorated the sign of CMV infection, it is concluded that there is a correlation between abiotic and biotic stresses improving tolerance level of this tomato variety.