Journal of Berry Research - Volume Pre-press, issue Pre-press
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The main objective of the
Journal of Berry Research is to improve the knowledge about quality and production of berries to benefit health of the consumers and maintain profitable production using sustainable systems.
The objective will be achieved by focusing on four main areas of research and development:
1. From genetics to variety evaluation
2. Nursery production systems and plant quality control
3. Plant physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as cultural management
4. Health for the consumer: components and factors affecting berries' nutritional value
Specifically, the journal will cover berries (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, cranberry currants, etc.), as well as grapes and small soft fruit in general (e.g., kiwi fruit). It will publish research results covering all areas of plant breeding, including plant genetics, genomics, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, plant physiology, plant pathology and plant development, as well as results dealing with the chemistry and biochemistry of bioactive compounds contained in such fruits and their possible role in human health. Contributions detailing possible pharmacological, medical or therapeutic use or dietary significance will be welcomed in addition to studies regarding biosafety issues of genetically modified plants.
Journal of Berry Research will feature reviews, research articles, brief communications, position papers, letters and patent updates.
Abstract: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in the onset and progression of various diseases and the role of antioxidants in the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases has received much attention. The action and effect of antioxidants have been studied extensively under different reaction conditions in multiple media. The antioxidant effects are determined by many factors. This review aims to discuss several important issues that should be considered for determination of experimental conditions and interpretation of experimental results in order to understand the beneficial effects and limit of antioxidants against detrimental oxidation of biological molecules. Emphasis was…laid on cell culture experiments and effects of diversity of multiple oxidants on antioxidant efficacy.
Keywords: Antioxidant, cell culture medium, oxygen concentration, reactive oxygen species
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. ), a natural dietary source of (poly)phenols, has been used as medicine for centuries. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a red raspberry (poly)phenolic extract (RPE) on diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Male specific pathogen-free C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12 per group), and fed with low-fat diet (10% fat energy), high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat energy), or HFD supplemented with RPE of 150 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration for 14…weeks. Obesity-related biochemical indexes and hepatic gene expression levels were determined. The statistical analyses were conducted using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. RESULTS: The body weight gain, steatosis grade scores and insulin resistance index in the RPE group decreased by 34.48% (P = 0.00), 58.82% (P = 0.00), and 53.77% (P = 0.00), respectively, compared to those in the HFD group. Moreover, RPE supplement significantly changed the expression profile of the genes involved in lipid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21 signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that RPE protected from diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders by improving the lipid metabolism and fibroblast growth factor 21 resistance.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Black raspberry is a vital fruit crop with a high antioxidant function. MADS-box genes play an important role in the regulation of fruit development in angiosperms. OBJECTIVE: To understand the regulatory role of the MADS-box family, a total of 80 MADS-box genes were identified and analyzed. METHODS: The MADS-box genes in the black raspberry genome were analyzed using bioinformatics methods. Through an analysis of the promoter elements, the possible functions of different members of the family were predicted. The spatiotemporal expression patterns of members of the MADS-box family during black raspberry fruit development and ripening…were systematically analyzed. RESULTS: The genes were classified into type I (Mα: 33; Mβ: 6; Mγ: 10) and type II (MIKC * : 2; MIKCC : 29) genes. We also obtained a complete overview of the RoMADS-box gene family through phylogenetic, gene structure, conserved motif, and cis element analyses. The relative expression analysis showed different expression patterns, and most RoMADS-box genes were more highly expressed in fruit than in other tissues of black raspberry. CONCLUSIONS: This finding indicates that the MADS-box gene family is involved in the regulation of fruit ripening processes in black raspberry.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Black currants are berries that attract attention due to the beneficial effects they possess. They are proven to be good antioxidants, anticancerogenic, cardio- and neuroprotective agents. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research was to evaluate the differences in the flavonols composition, antioxidant and spasmolytic activity of juices obtained from four different black currant cultivars – Triton, Tenah, Ben Sarek, and Ometa, grown over a 4-year long period on the territory of Serbia. METHODS: The qualitative and quantitative determination of black currants juices flavonols was performed using the HPLC. The antioxidative activity was carried out…in DPPH and β -carotene systems. The study examined the impact of the main black currants flavonols and black currants juices on the spontaneous, KCl, and acetylcholine-induced ileum smooth muscle contractions. RESULTS: The dominant flavonol in juices of the four different black currant cultivars was myricetin, with its highest content obtained from the 2015 Triton juice (820.1±34.7 μ g g–1 ). Quercetin was the second in abundance and the lowest yields were observed in kaempferol. CONCLUSION: The investigated black currant cultivars were proven to be good sources of flavonols and potential antioxidants with the significant spasmolytic activity that could be successfully used in treating gastrointestinal disorders.
Keywords: Black currants, flavonols, myricetin, spasmolytic activity, juices
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum ) are important fruits in the Mediterranean diet and are considered to reduce the risk of different human diseases due to their antioxidative powers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biodiversity within a set of 50 tomato fruit accessions collected across Turkey concerning their antioxidant capacities and the levels of potential health-beneficial compounds including phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols. METHODS: All accessions were simultaneously grown in an open experimental field in 2017 and ripe fruits were harvested for analysis. Antioxidant capacities of both hydrophilic and…lipophilic extracts were determined using spectrophotometric assays after which individual antioxidants were identified by HPLC using an on-line antioxidant detection system. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamins C and E were quantified using HPLC. RESULTS: The results indicated that there is a wide diversity within this small collection with respect to their hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. CONCLUSION: Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of the tomatoes was generally related to chlorogenic acid and Vitamin C levels, while lipophilic antioxidants were correlated to all-trans lycopene.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Polyphenols intake increases the function of brown adipose tissue (BAT), stimulating energy expenditure (EE). Calafate (Berberis microphylla ) is a polyphenol-rich Chilean native fruit. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of a treatment with a Calafate extract in the thermogenic activity of mice adipose tissues. METHODS: Forty adult C57BL/6J male mice were subdivided into four groups (n =10 each): control diet, control+Calafate (extract: 50mg total polyphenols/kg weight), high-fat diet (HF) and HF+Calafate. RESULTS: Calafate prevented the increase in body weight and the decrease EE induced by HF. In BAT, Ucp-1 transcript was influenced by…the interaction between diet and Calafate (p <0.01), Pparα showed the same expression pattern as Ucp-1 and both, diet (p <0.01) and Calafate (p <0.05), induced significant effects in Sirt1. In inguinal adipose tissue, Pgc1α , Pparα , Prdm16, Sirt1, and Dio2 transcripts presented a decreased expression caused by HF, that was reversed by Calafate. In BAT, an effect of diet (p <0.05) and an interaction between diet and Calafate (p <0.01) was observed in UCP-1 protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: A treatment with Calafate drives less weight gain in mice fed with HF, and reverses the effects generated by it on the expression of thermogenic and browning markers.
Keywords: Calafate, polyphenols, brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, browning
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Monoterpenes and C13 -norisoprenoids are key terpenoid compounds for wine aroma. The enzyme encoded by VviDXS1 participates in terpenoid biosynthesis in grapevine fruits and gain-of-function mutations in this gene lead to characteristic muscat aroma. OBJECTIVE: To assess for VviDXS1 contribution to aroma variation in Northwestern Iberian wine cultivars, we resequenced this gene in 111 cultivars and compared grape juice terpenic composition in 12 of them. METHODS: VviDXS1 was capture-targeted for resequencing with Illumina paired-end reads, SAMtools was used for variant calling and gene haplotypes were reconstructed with PHASE. Monoterpenes and C13 -norisoprenoids…were quantified in free and glycosidically-bound forms from grape juice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Terpenic composition discriminated between muscat, terpenic and neutral profiles across cultivars. While the terpenic profile of Loureira and Albariño white cultivars was not associated with muscat-like mutations, Albariño carries a V34L substitution in VviDXS1 that is also present in other aromatic cultivars and was not reported before. Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon red cultivars accumulated higher levels of C13 -norisoprenoids, which was not associated with specific variation in VviDXS1 . CONCLUSIONS: Apart from the uncharacterized substitution present in Albariño, findings suggest that terpenoid pathway-related genes other than VviDXS1 could contribute to the aromatic attributes of these cultivars.
Keywords: DXS, haplotype diversity, monoterpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, muscat aroma
Abstract: BACKGROUND: HD-Zip genes encode several large and highly conserved protein families of transcription factors that play important roles in plant development and responses to environmental stress. To date, information about the involvement of HD-Zip in grape to drought response is limited. OBJECTIVE: The production of grapes is limited by a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, which cause significant losses in yield every year as well as a reduction in fruit quality. Identification and analysis of stress related genes in grapes are very important for cultivating more robust varieties with environmental stress resistance METHODS: We isolated…a homeodomain-leucine zipper gene (HD-Zip), VvHDZ4 , from grape, Vitis vinifera L. “Yatomi Rose”, and characterized VvHDZ4 based on analyses of its expression patterns, subcellular localization, transcription activity, and overexpression. RESULTS: We found that VvHDZ4 was highly expressed in roots and leaves, localized to nucleus, and activated the expression of reporter genes in yeast. The overexpression (OE) of VvHDZ4 led to enhanced drought stress tolerance in Solanum lycopersicum L. “Ailsa Craig” (tomato). The drought-tolerant phenotypes of the OE lines exhibited decreases in electrolyte leakage and rate of water loss, higher photosynthetic production and net photosynthesis rate, and showed up-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), all of which are key antioxidant enzymes known to be activated during drought stress. Moreover, we observed the up-regulation of four additional drought stress indicator genes, SIDREB2A , SIAREB , SIRD29 and SIERD10 , in the OE lines. VvHDZ4 improved drought tolerance in tomato, and the modes of action possibly consist of reducing membrane damage, increasing photosynthetic productivity, and modulating the expression of stress defense genes. CONCLUSIONS: This work increases our understanding of the important roles HD-Zip transcription factors in the responses of plants to the environment, especially abiotic stress.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Fruits of Crataegus songarica are commonly used for the treatment of vascular insufficiency and heart problems. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the effect of C. songarica on vascular tone and to determine the mechanisms underlying the vasorelaxant properties. METHODS: Extracts of C. songarica were tested for vasodilator activity of porcine coronary artery after pre-contraction with the thromboxane mimetic U46619 in the presence or absence of inhibitors of intracellular signaling cascades. Reactive oxygen species were assessed by dihydroethidine staining and the level of eNOS and AKT phosphorylation was measured by immunohistochemical staining.…RESULTS: Extracts of C. songarica berries produced endothelium dependent vasorelaxation, with most significant effect induced by aqueous fraction (AS-CS). This vasorelaxant effect of AS-CS was reduced by inhibition of nitric oxide pathways and inhibition of potassium channels. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase and Src tyrosine kinase, as well as scavenging of reactive oxygen species, produced an attenuation of the relaxation response. Estrogen receptor antagonists (tamoxifen and ICI 182,782) reduced the AS-CS mediated vasorelaxation. AS-CS also stimulated the endothelial formation of ROS and phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. CONCLUSION: The data indicated that C. songarica produces an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, which is partly dependent upon estrogen receptors, and sensitive to inhibition of ROS/Src/PI3K/NO pathways.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the Mediterranean basin, the solar radiation received is very high for many tree species over several hours of the day during the summer. Using a photoselective net can improve the climatic conditions and also modify the quality of light received. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the colour of photoselective nets on the yield and quality of Actinidia chinensis . MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in Southern Italy on an orchard of Jintao kiwifruit. Photoselective nets of different colours were used: black, red, yellow, white, and grey. The resulting fruits…were compared to those of plants in the open field. A randomised block design was adopted. Environmental, vegetative, and leaf gas exchange parameters; yield; and fruit quality were defined. All data were analysed using the Variance Analysis (ANOVA) and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). RESULTS: Photoselectivity influenced production. The best results were obtained under the red net in terms of production and fertility indices. Fruit size, maturation indices, and nutraceutical parameters were also higher under the red net. Among the nets, the grey net induced the worst tree productivity results and the worst fruit quality parameters. However, all nets showed better results compared to the open field. CONCLUSION: The photoselective net strongly influenced the yield and quality of Jintao kiwifruit and the better results compared to the open field. The red net proved to be the best performer for the environment where the experiment was carried out.
, maturation indices, photoselective net
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins are one of the key factors contributing to the quality and biological activities in various berries. Particular attention was devoted to Vaccinium L. berries, because of being commonly consumed in daily life and providing a large potential for the development of new pharmaceutical applications. OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed at establishing a novel UPLC-PDA method for profiling anthocyanins in berries and evaluating their distribution in cultivated lingonberries. METHODS: The method was developed and validated using bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) matrices. Anthocyanins…content variation was analyzed among 7 different cultivars and 1 infraspecific taxon of lingonberries. RESULTS: The proposed method ensured the separation of 20 compounds, including major and minor anthocyanins and their aglycones, in bilberries, 15 in cranberries, and 9 in lingonberries, during 12 min analysis. Bilberry matrix was distinguished by the most complex profile and the presence of delphinidin and petunidin, which were not identified either in cranberries or lingonberries. Cranberry anthocyanins consisted mainly of the 3-galactosides of cyanidin and peonidin, whereas lingonberry anthocyanins included cyanidin and its glycosides with just traces of other anthocyanins. Obtained anthocyanins fingerprinting results have guidance function in practice and demonstrate valuable chemophenetic information for studied Vaccinium berries. All determined method validation values were considered to be acceptable. Variation analysis of anthocyanins levels among cultivated lingonberries suggested genetic diversity and because of the highest anthocyanins content—the superiority of Russian cultivars (‘Kostromička’ and ‘Rubin’). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report on the anthocyanins of certain lingonberry cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: This study resulted in the rapid, simple, and validated method, which was shown to be applicable and convenient for routine analysis and authentication of Vaccinium berry samples.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Berberis microphylla (calafate) is an evergreen shrub considered a non-timber product from the Patagonian forest, relevant for the diversification of agrifood production, particularly interesting since its black–blue fruits are extremely rich in phenolic compounds. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives were to: (1) quantify the variability of fruit traits, anthocyanin content, efficiency of the reproductive shoots and leaf nutrient content within the set of 34 B. microphylla wild accessions from Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina, (2) calculate the coefficients of correlation between variables and (3) detect relationships between the genotypes. METHODS: Plants growing near…Ushuaia city (n = 12), bordering Fagnano lake (n = 12) and central area of the Tierra del Fuego Island (n = 10) were selected. RESULTS: A significant variability in fruit traits, anthocyanin content and the efficiency of reproductive shoots among and within the three populations was assessed, a result with great relevance for breeding purposes. Phenotypic plasticity was related with the environmental conditions, i.e. air temperatures for each population during the three monitored growing seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results indicate that yearly environmental factors play a relevant role in phenotypic variation of both individual plants and populations, thus confirming the complexity of wild species evolution and domestication processes.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bet v 1 family identified as one major plant food allergen class, is highly homologous to pathogenesis-related protein 10 (PR-10), but its biological function involved in disease resistance is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether Bet v 1 potential allergens participate in the resistance of berry crops against fungal pathogen. METHODS: Allergenicity of Bet v 1 proteins in strawberry (Fragaria ) was evaluated by bioinformatics methods. Their expression in response to anthracnose and between susceptible and resistance varieties was analyzed. RESULTS: 19 Bet v 1 homologous proteins were identified and…15 of them were considered as allergen candidates. RNA-seq analysis indicated most of these Fra a 1 s expressed in fruits could be largely induced by the invasion of anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum . The mRNA level of fruit major allergen Fra a 1.05 in the resistant variety Shenyang (SY) was 20∼50 fold higher compared with those in the susceptible cultivar and two diploid wild species. Immunoblotting using Birch (Betula pendula ) Bet v 1 allergen-specific IgG antibody confirmed the large-scale accumulation of potential cross-reactive antigens in SY fruit. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry Bet v 1 potential allergens exhibit their correspondence with anthracnose resistance that might be instructive to future breeding strategies.
Keywords: Bet v 1,
, disease resistance, allergy
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Dark-skin berries constitute a polyphenol-rich source of interest for the development of functional ingredients. OBJECTIVE: To develop an elderberry powder, addressing technological aspects for maximum bioactive recovery, including physical quality and bioaccesibility of the antioxidant compounds. METHODS: An optimization of the combined process of enzyme-assisted extraction and freeze-drying was undertaken. Polyphenols and anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric and HPLC-DAD analysis along processing stages and an in vitro digestion model was used to study the antioxidant compound activity through gastrointestinal tract and after transepithelial transport across a Caco-2 cell monolayer. Powder physical properties were also…evaluated. RESULTS: The best extraction conditions were 45°C and 160 ppm enzyme. 10% maltodextrin was the minimum carrier concentration needed to get a freeze-dried powder with good physical properties and maximum bioactive content. The phenolic compounds identified in fruits (mainly cyanidin-based anthocyanins, quercetin-3-rutinoside, catechin and, in smaller amounts, gallic and chlorogenic acids) were also present in the optimum extract and the powder. High bioaccesibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were obtained after in vitro digestion and transepithelial transport. CONCLUSION: The designed elderberry powder showed great potential as functional ingredient to be used in berry juice-based beverages or other products formulated with fruit powders.
Keywords: Elderberry, freeze-dried powder, antioxidant ingredient,
in vitro digestion, bioaccesibility
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) as basis for winemaking is one of the most economically important plants in modern agriculture. As requirements in viticulture are increasing due to changing environments, terroir and pests, classical agriculture techniques reach their limits. OBJECTIVE: We summarize the impact of modern “omics” technologies on modern grapevine breeding and cultivation, as well as for dealing with challenges in viniculture caused by environmental or terroir changes and pests and diseases. In this review, we give an overview on current research on the influence of “omics” technologies on modern viticulture. RESULTS: Considerable advances…in bioinformatics and analytical techniques such as next generation sequencing or mass spectrometry fueled new molecular biological studies. Modern “omics” technologies such as “genomics”, “transcriptomics”, “proteomics” and “metabolomics” allow the investigation on a large-scale data basis and the identification of key markers. Holistic understanding of genes, proteins and metabolites in combination with external biotic and abiotic factors improves vine and wine quality. CONCLUSION: The rapid evolution in wine quality was only enabled by the progress of modern biotechnological methods developing enology from a handcraft to science.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is no mention in the literature of vegetative propagation of Vaccinium myrtillus . OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the rooting potential of bilberry rhizome and stem cuttings. METHODS: Rhizome and stem cuttings collected in early Autumn were dipped in different IBA solutions (0 – 2000 – 4000 mgL–1 ) and rooted in non-sterilized V. myrtillus soil and expanded perlite under controlled growth chamber environment or under mist with basal heating in a greenhouse for 12 weeks. RESULTS: Rhizome cuttings showed high rooting potential in plant growth regulator (PGR)…free substrates. Conversely, stem cuttings took advantage from IBA treatments; this positive effect on rooting percentage was synergistically increased when rooted in agriperlite. A higher rooting capacity was achieved when rhizome and stem cuttings were placed in agriperlite, however number of developed roots and shoots were much higher when V. myrtillus turf was used as substrate. Mist and bottom heating did not improve rooting significantly. CONCLUSIONS: V. myrtillus can be successfully propagated both by rhizome and stem cuttings. With an overall rooting success of 56–68% and with a reasonably good growth rate, production of planting material from stem cuttings of V. myrtillus offers opportunities for a cheaper, practically feasible and technically less demanding alternative means of propagation.
Abstract: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Whole red raspberry (WRR) consumption on vascular function was investigated in the obese Zucker rat (OZR), model of MetS. Male OZR and their lean littermates (LZR) were placed on a control (C) or an 8% w/w WRR-enriched diet for 8 weeks. Phenylephrine (Phe)-induced vasoconstriction and acetylcholine (Ach)-induced vasorelaxation were measured in aortic rings in the presence or absence of L-N-monomethyl-arginine (L-NMMA) and mefenamic acid (MFA). Phe-induced vasoconstriction was lower in the OZR-C compared to LZR-C (p < 0.05). The WRR diet partially restored aortic response in the OZR-WRR aorta (p <… 0.05) compared to OZR- C. The OZR-WRR group pre-treated with L-NMMA increased compared to OZR-C (p < 0.05). Pre-treatment with L-NMMA, maximal relaxation response was higher in the OZR compared to the LZR (p < 0.05). With L-NMMA, maximal relaxation response in OZR-WRR (p < 0.05) was lower compared to the OZR-C. Prostacyclin I2 concentration was higher in the OZR compared to the LZR (p < 0.05) and was attenuated in the OZR-WRR (p < 0.05). Aortic expression of eNOS and COX-2 were downregulated in the OZR-WRR (p < 0.05). In conclusion, WRR restores the impaired vascular tone of the OZR by enhancing Phe-induced vasoconstriction and attenuating Ach-induced vasorelaxation.
Keywords: Endothelial dysfunction, obese zucker rat, red raspberry, vasoconstriction, vasorelaxation, cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide, thromboxane A2, prostacyclin I2
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The use of polysaccharide based edible coatings as a barrier against the solute entry of high caloric constituents, such as sucrose, is a suitable strategy to develop pro-healthy osmo-dehydrated products. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to study the effect of a calcium alginate film over the drying kinetics of strawberries during an osmotic dehydration (OD) treatment at 60°Brix, 4 h, 40°C (sucrose). Also, textural parameters were evaluated. METHODS: It was determined the changes in some selected physical properties, such as: moisture, total solid contents, one-dimensional shrinkage and texture, at 30 min steps during OD treatment. Besides, water and…solid diffusion coefficients ( D e W and D e TS , respectively) were calculated by using the analytical solution of Fick’s equation. RESULTS: Diffusion coefficients for water and solids showed significant differences due to coating presence as an evidence of the barrier effect. Coated strawberry samples presented several changes after 2 h of OD treatment at the assayed conditions for most of the parameters evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Alginate coating at the tested conditions acts as a barrier to sucrose influx and to water outflux until 2 and 3 h of OD treatment, respectively. Besides, a good textural quality for osmotically-dehydrated strawberries was obtained.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The native Chilean white strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis ) is a semi-domesticated crop that has a characteristic aroma and flavor and a low production in southern Chile. However, edaphoclimatic conditions can influence on fruit quality attributes and its health benefits. Establishing a link between seasonal changes and aroma or biological activity require detailed research in exploring bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVE: The present work assessed how seasonal and local changes varied the content of bioactive compounds and therefore change their aromatic quality and the response of biological activity. METHODS: White Strawberry from…two seasons and two locations were investigated; FCC1, FCC2 (Fragaria chiloensis from Contulmo, 2017 and 2018 season, respectively), FCP1, FCP2 (F. chiloensis from Purén, 2017 and 2018 season, respectively). Measurement of changes on volatile compounds were studied by SPME/GC-MS. Analyses of variations on phenolic compounds were investigated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn with total polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity by using DPPH • and ORAC assays by spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods. The relationship between different concentrations of compounds and in vitro biological activity including inhibitory tests for α -glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase were analyzed. RESULTS: In the fruit extracts, 38 volatiles and 27 phenolic compounds were identified detecting differences among the samples, being affected by climatic conditions and location. The total content of ellagic acid and its derivatives was 6.54 mg 100 g–1 FW for FCC1, showing statistical differences with respect to the rest strawberries. Nonetheless, the antioxidant capacity tests revealed high antioxidant capacity for all samples, being FCP2 the significantly highest activity (3314μ mol Trolox 100 g–1 FW by DPPH • assay) compared to the rest of locations and seasons. Additional inhibitory tests α -glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase showed statistically differences due to seasonal and location changes where was observed higher ellagic acid derivates content and bioactivity. The Chilean white strawberry extracts were effective inhibitors of α -glucosidase (non-competitive) and acetylcholinesterase (competitive) activities, respectively, presenting FCC1 the most potent inhibitory effects. CONCLUSIONS: A higher ellagic acid content in Chilean white strawberry, affected by seasonal and location changes, influenced on the biological activity potential. Therefore, the relatively high antioxidant capacity, phytochemical composition and biological activity potential, of these aromatic fruits, offer a great opportunity for the rural developments, however it will be necessary to implement good practices that would guarantee batch-to-batch replicability for quality and composition of these foods for the future.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: For global water shortage concerns and high cost of mineral nutrients it is necessary to decrease the amount of nutrient solutions in greenhouse production systems. Deficit fertigation may negatively affect the crop productivity and phytohormones can mitigate the adverse effects of stresses. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of deficit fertigation in combination with salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (PUT) on strawberry fruit yield and quality. METHODS: Strawberry plants were fertilized with a complete nutrient solution of 220 (control), 180 (mild deficit fertigation) and/or 140 mL/dD (severe deficit fertigation), and treated with PUT (at 0 and 2 mM)…and/or SA (at 0 and 2 mM) and the combinations of these treatments during growth stages. Fruit growth, quality parameters, yield and phytochemical compounds were evaluated at harvest. RESULTS: Mild deficit fertigation (MDF) (140 mL/d) significantly enhanced the yield and quality of the fruit, and both PUT and SA, enhanced the positive effects of MDF on crop productivity. SA and PUT decreased the negative effects of DF on crop yield and fruit growth. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that it is possible to substantially enhance the quality and productivity of strawberries with a MDF regime, and PUT and SA treatments.
Keywords: Strawberry fruit quality, deficit fertigation, phenolics, putrescine, salicylic acid
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Barberry is a valuable plant, which is useful in the treatment of different diseases. There are valuable compounds in different parts of barberry that are pruned per year and discarded as waste. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the amount of berberine, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of barberry fruits, leaves, and stems of different barberry species (B.integerrima and B.thunbergii ) were investigated. METHODS: Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) were used in this study to investigate the extraction variables (time: 2–24 h, temperature: 24–70°C and ethanol concentration: 50–90%) in the extraction of berberine from…the stem of B.integrrima . The responses used as criteria were the amount of berberine, scavenging radical DPPH, and polyphenol. Also, pulsed electric field-assisted (PEF) was applied as a pretreatment (Pulse strengths of 250, 1000 and 1250 Vcm–1 ; Pulse numbers (n) of 50 and 100; frequency (f) of 1 Hz) and then the extraction was conducted in optimum condition. PEF increased significantly the amount of berberine. RESULTS: The stem of B.integrrima had the most amounts of antioxidant activity and berberine content, and it was selected for more investigation. The optimum condition in the maceration method was: 90% of ethanol, 70°C, and 3.36 h (141.6 min). According to the result of PEF method, the best condition for extraction of berberine from barberry stems was 1000 Vcm–1 and n = 100. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that the extract of B.integrrima stem is a good source of berberine, antioxidant, and has the potential to be applied in various industries.